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Francis Fukuyama: The end of (human) history, reconsidered

Genetic Crossroads
November 21st, 1999

In 1991, Francis Fukuyama proclaimed the "end of history"
and the


triumph of "liberal democracy and a market-oriented economic
order

[as] the only viable options for modern societies." Now
Fukuyama

has revised his assessment in the light of the bright outlook
he

foresees for human germline enhancement.


In the summer 1999 issue of The National Interest, Fukuyama

repeated his earlier argument about the failure of social efforts


since the French Revolution to create "a new kind of human
being,

one that would not be subject to the prejudices and limitations


of the past." Fukuyama now believes that "biotechnology
will be

able to accomplish what the radical ideologies of the past,
with

their unbelievably crude techniques, were unable to accomplish:


to bring about a new type of human being."


"Within the next couple of generations," he writes,
"we will have

definitively finished human History because we will have abolished


human beings as such. And then, a new posthuman history will
begin."


(Francis Fukuyama, "Second Thoughts: The Last Man in a
Bottle,"

The National Interest, Summer 1999.)



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