In 1991, Francis Fukuyama proclaimed the "end of history"
triumph of "liberal democracy and a market-oriented economic
[as] the only viable options for modern societies." Now
has revised his assessment in the light of the bright outlook
foresees for human germline enhancement.
In the summer 1999 issue of The National Interest, Fukuyama
repeated his earlier argument about the failure of social efforts
since the French Revolution to create "a new kind of human
one that would not be subject to the prejudices and limitations
of the past." Fukuyama now believes that "biotechnology
able to accomplish what the radical ideologies of the past,
their unbelievably crude techniques, were unable to accomplish:
to bring about a new type of human being."
"Within the next couple of generations," he writes,
"we will have
definitively finished human History because we will have abolished
human beings as such. And then, a new posthuman history will
(Francis Fukuyama, "Second Thoughts: The Last Man in a
The National Interest, Summer 1999.)