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An Even Stranger Presidential Candidate

Posted by Pete Shanks on May 5th, 2016


Poster for the Istvan campaign

Some years ago, in deepest Asia, an American was reportedly kidnapped and hypnotized into doing his captors' bidding any time the Queen of Diamonds was played. Oh, wait, that was the Manchurian Candidate (1, 2, 3). We're talking about the Transhumanist Candidate. Let’s start again.

If you pay attention to the lamestream media, as a former VP candidate called our mighty organs, you may think that the pool of those running for President has or soon will have tightened from 23 (six D’s, don’t forget Lessig, and seventeen R’s) to two. You would be wrong.

In fact, it has shrunk from 1,711 to something like ten. According to Ballotpedia, four Democrats other than Hillary Clinton (or Bernie Sanders) will be on more than 5% of presidential ballots, along with two repeat offenders (Libertarian Gary Johnson and Green Jill Stein) and possibly Jesse “The Body" Ventura. Add in He Trump, and that makes nine. But wait, there’s more!

Zoltan Istvan is running.

The Federal Election Commission, stick-in-the-muds that they are, insist on calling him Zoltan Istvan Gyurko. He calls himself an American-Hungarian but this Magyar site seems to say, according to Google Translate, that he is a Hungarian-born American. That could cause a bit of difficulty, though certain other candidates seem to have evaded or redefined the “native-born” requirement. [ETA: He was born in Los Angeles, after his parents escaped from Hungary.]

Also, the FEC lists his party affiliation as “Other.” But Zoltan is actually running on behalf of the Transhumanist Party. The two other officers are Zoltan’s wife Dr. Lisa Memmel (who is an ob-gyn) and a big fan currently writing a “guide book” to Istvan’s transhumanist philosophy. The advisors include Aubrey de Grey and Gabriel (son of Martine) Rothblatt, as well as one of the Alcor Directors, and other low-wattage luminaries.

The short version of his platform is:

The Transhumanist Party and Zoltan Istvan's US Presidential campaign is politically-centric. It aims to support voters with future-inspired policies that will enrich America and the world. We believe science and technology can solve most of the world's problems.

Among the specifics are:

  • Lay groundwork for rights for other future advanced sapient beings like conscious robots and cyborgs.
  • Create stronger government awareness and policies to protect against existential risk (including artificial intelligence, plagues, asteroids, climate change, and nuclear warfare and disaster) [but not including protection of humans qua humans]
  • Implement policy for the phasing out of all individual taxes based on robots taking most jobs in the next 25 years. Advocate for a flat tax until we reach that point.
  • Develop international consortium to create a "Transhumanist Olympics”
  • Encourage private industry to develop and support usage of a cranial trauma alert chip that notifies emergency crews of extreme trauma (this will significantly reduce domestic violence, crime, and tragedy in America)
  • Work to use science and technology to be able to eliminate all disabilities in humans who have them.

But the big deal is downplayed in the official list, which does however refer to this statement of intent, which explains, right up front, as the first “primary goal” of his political agenda:

1) Attempt to do everything possible to make it so this country’s amazing scientists and technologists have resources to overcome human death and aging within 15–20 years—a goal an increasing number of leading scientists think is reachable.

(Presumably that’s why Aubrey de Grey is on board.)

Zoltan wrote a book a couple of years ago, and he seems to be having quite a lot of fun with this “campaign.” He raised $27, 250 on Indiegogo to create an Immortality Bus. (He accepts no financial contributions, on principle.) That's a "mobile 40-foot coffin" that he drove around the country "to ignite the next great civil rights debate in America and around the world." He did it, too, and even got some press.

He regularly publishes at Huffington Post (they’ll put almost anything up), and published pieces in the San Francisco Chronicle in both 2002 and 2003, in Outside in 2004, and in the Daily Caller in 2010 on the marijuana business. Slightly more substantial is his old work for National Geographic’s various outlets; he really was in deepest Asia.

He’s done a very respectable job boosting his profile among the notoriously small circle of transhumanists, but not without making enemies there. Notably, James Hughes can’t stand him. They had a “salty” debate in April, which was written up in Motherboard, with many lovely quotes, the best of which they kept for last:

Extra Sick Burn:
Hughes on Zoltan’s novel, The Transhumanist Wager: “It’s like Ayn Rand wrote Atlas Shrugged and then ran for office as a Democrat… At least in Atlas Shrugged the rich people buggered off and left everybody alone.”

But what will happen when the aliens turn over the triggering card? Now we know: The whole Presidential run was a feint. He’s really going for the Vice-Presidential slot:

Istvan said in an email Tuesday evening that he recently flew across the country to be interviewed by one of the remaining major party candidates to fill the slot of vice president on a ticket.

Right. There may be room in the White House for a food taster.

Previously on Biopolitical Times:


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Public Opposes Human Germline “Enhancement” by Overwhelming Majority

Posted by Pete Shanks on May 5th, 2016


The public is firmly — overwhelmingly — opposed to using gene editing for heritable “enhancement” purposes. Many people, if pressed, will support the concept of heritable “cures” that for the foreseeable future, at least, are not practical and rarely needed, if at all. It is not clear, however, how many of the public (and perhaps the pollsters) have an adequate grasp of the issues involved in heritable human genetic modification (HGM).

CGS has for a decade been collecting polling data going back to 1986: over 50 polls, some of them international, on HGM and/or human cloning are summarized here. Assessing that data, however, has always been tricky.

Polls tend to show that public sentiment about human biotechnologies is strongly ambivalent. Most people value their potential to alleviate suffering, yet are apprehensive about the social consequences of some applications. Public opinion on HGM is particularly difficult to assess because of the ambiguity of some of the questions and the terminology used. Opposition decreases with increased emphasis on cures, and increases with emphasis on non-medical or “enhancement” uses, such as  improving intelligence.

Interpreting the data is now of much more than academic interest. Many scientists and policymakers have begun looking for a “broad societal consensus” to guide decision-making about the limits that should be put in place for human genetic applications.

Prompted by this, Robert Blendon, Mary Gorski and John Benson published a survey article, "The Public and the Gene-Editing Revolution" in the New England Journal of Medicine on April 14th. It analyzes, and links, 17 U.S. polls over the last three decades. (Several of them were not previously in the CGS collection, but they are in line with the several dozen that were.) The article concludes:

Most of the public favors gene therapy for clinical use in patients with serious diseases. The majority do not support gene editing in human embryos or germline cells, but the level of opposition varies depending on its goals. Of course, public opinion could change over time as discussions of these issues continue to evolve and as more is learned about the implications and safety of gene-editing technologies.

It’s possible to draw quite a different conclusion. The opposition to using enhancement technologies in HGM has been quite consistent for decades. Moreover, the “medical” arguments in favor are much weaker than the questions asked by pollsters generally imply. Inevitably, hypothetical questions assume success, which in this case is by no means guaranteed, or even likely. How different might the responses be if those being polled fully understood the risks involved, the slim likelihood of success in the foreseeable future, and the availability of alternatives?

Eric Lander, one of the most distinguished current geneticists, addressed these points in his presentation last December at the National Academies of Science gene editing summit (15-minute video here, strongly recommended), and elsewhere. For instance, he wrote in NEJM last June:

… Some observers might propose reshaping the human gene pool by endowing all children with many naturally occurring “protective” variants. However, genetic variants that decrease risk for some diseases can increase risk for others. (For example, the CCR5 mutations that protect against HIV also elevate the risk for West Nile virus, and multiple genes have variants with opposing effects on risk for type 1 diabetes and Crohn's disease.) … It has been only about a decade since we first read the human genome. We should exercise great caution before we begin to rewrite it.

More bluntly, he told the Washington Post in April that we don’t understand the genome well enough to be confident that the changes we make will be salutary in the long run:

"We’re crummy at it," he said. "We are terrible predictors of the consequences of the changes we make."

The most recent poll included in the NEJM survey was conducted in January 2016 [pdf] by STAT and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Sharon Begley, for STAT, wrote an analysis that opens:

Most Americans oppose using powerful new technology to alter the genes of unborn babies, according to a new poll — even to prevent serious inherited diseases.

They expressed the strongest disapproval for editing genes to create “designer babies” with enhanced intelligence or looks.

The poll showed significant support for gene therapy, skepticism about genetic testing (shared by doctors) and the usual, solid opposition to enhancement:

Do you think that changing the genes of unborn babies to improve their intelligence or physical characteristics should be legal?

Yes: 11%, No: 83%, Don't know: 6%

(A Global Social Media Survey published on May 5th shows somewhat more support [27%] for editing embryos to change "any non-disease characteristic," but the authors recommend great caution in interpreting results that may not be representative.)

Moreover, the STAT survey revealed this remarkable finding:

Do you think the federal government should fund scientific research on changing the genes of unborn babies that aims to improve their characteristics such as intelligence or physical traits such as athletic ability or appearance?

Yes: 14%, No: 82%, Don't know: 4%

These are, or should be, devastating numbers to anyone who thinks that the public supports human heritable genetic modification.

Previously on Biopolitical Times:





Hacking CRISPR: Patents, Gene Therapy & Embryos

Posted by Elliot Hosman on May 5th, 2016


Untitled Document

Bruiseless bananas, vegan cats, pig-to-human transplants, and super-muscular dogs: can you tell the real CRISPR projects from fake ones? It’s getting harder these days, as the latest generation of “gene editing” tools are not only (relatively) quicker, cheaper, and easier than any previous genetic engineering method, but have become “probably the fastest-spreading technology in the history of biology.” As it spreads, researchers the world over are discovering new hacks, complexities, and limitations for CRISPR. Here’s a round-up of recent developments in this booming arena.  

Trending globally: gene editing experiments with human embryos

On April 8, news broke that the second paper documenting CRISPR experiments in human embryos had been published. Researchers at Guangzhou Medical University sought to enhance nonviable embryos leftover from IVF with a naturally occurring mutation that confers HIV resistance: CCR5Δ32.


(Image via Wikimedia: Guangzhou Circle)

The experiments were largely unsuccessful: only 4 of 26 embryos wound up with a copy of the desired mutation, and none had the two copies that would be needed to resist the virus. Mosaicism was also a problem. A year prior in April 2015, the first research using CRISPR in tripronuclear human zygotes was reported by a team at Sun Yat-sen University in the obscure journal Protein & Cell, after Nature and Science turned it down. This second paper was reported in “an obscure reproductive journal” published by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine (the same body that releases non-enforceable guidelines into the void of any regulation over assisted reproductive technologies in the United States).

The research team acknowledged the controversial nature of their work amid ongoing debates:

We advocate preventing any application of genome editing on the human germline until after a rigorous and thorough evaluation and discussion are undertaken by the global research and ethics communities.…Despite the significant scientific and ethical issues involved, however, we believe that it is necessary to keep developing and improving the technologies for precise genetic modifications in humans.

Many found the latest CRISPR human embryos experiment to be ethically problematic in design and implication:

“Introducing CCR5Δ32 and trying repair, even in non-viable embryos, is just playing with human embryos.” – Tetsuya Ishii, bioethicist at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, Nature News

“The paper does not in my opinion strengthen the case that CRISPR’ing of human embryos with reproductive intent is ever something that could work well enough to be done clinically.” – Paul Knoepfler, associate professor of Cell Biology and Humanity at UC Davis School of Medicine, The Niche

“If you were serious about not wanting to go down this path where wealthy people are having children who have been genetically modified to have capacities that aren’t available to the children of poor parents, then the time to try and stop it is now.” – Robert Sparrow, associate professor at the Monash University Centre for Human Bioethics in Melbourne, South China Morning Post

A number of scientists commenting on the new publication distinguished its clear objective of refining human germline engineering for reproduction from the basic research goals of other ongoing CRISPR embryo experiments, including the HFEA’s February 2016 approval for Kathy Niakan’s embryo development research at the Francis Crick Institute in London. George Daley, stem-cell biologist at Children’s Hospital Boston in Massachusetts, categorized the new CRISPR embryo research as a “proof of principle for what would need to be done to generate an individual with resistance to HIV,” meaning “the science is going forward before there’s been the general consensus after deliberation that such an approach is medically warranted.”

“At least in the scientific community, I sense more support for basic-research applications," argued Fredrik Lanner, assistant professor at the Karolinska Institute near Stockholm, who was approved in June 2015 to use CRISPR in embryos to study early human development. In addition to UK and Sweden, a government bioethics panel in Japan on April 22 approved basic research using CRISPR in embryos, but denounced moving forward with clinical germline research.  

New tools and research for hacking the CRISPR patent war

Even as CRISPR investments, biomaterials, and research licenses proliferate internationally, the ongoing patent fight between prominent American universities has had a major impact on the landscape. Jacob Sherkow, associate professor of law at New York Law School, argues in Nature that “pursuit of profit poisons collaboration” and the “CRISPR-Cas9 patent battle demonstrates how overzealous efforts to commercialize technology can damage science” by pitting schools against one another and “erod[ing] scientific collaboration.”

Shobita Parthasarathy, associate professor of Public Policy and Women's Studies at University of Michigan, puts forth two important lessons. First, she argues that “patent systems no longer fit the realities of how science works, and patents give their owners significant control over the fate and shape of technologies.” She also notes that licensing decisions by CRISPR patent holders may subjugate democratic deliberation over “what kinds of research will take place in embryos … [and] what kinds of human genetic engineering might become commercially available.”

Meanwhile, researchers are publishing tweaks and upgrades to CRISPR-Cas9 on a near-weekly basis, causing observers to wonder if the patent fight will soon become a moot point—a “historical footnote.”

Recent CRISPR breakthroughs, setbacks, and related research include:

Gene Editing à “Base Editing”

On April 20, researchers reported they had engineered CRISPR to perform edits not just to a genetic sequence but to individual letters of DNA, changing “C” to “U” (“U” is usually found in RNA and is read as “T” in DNA).


(Image via Pixabay)

The lead author of the new "base editing" research, Harvard biochemist David Liu, is a co-founder and scientific advisor at Editas Medicine, the first CRISPR company to go public. Excitement surrounding the new hack led many to speak freely about the limitations of CRISPR, including Harvard biologist George Church who observed “what often passes as ‘genome editing’ would more appropriately be called ‘genome vandalism’” because, as STAT’s Sharon Begley writes, the “molecular machete” triggers the “cell’s DNA-repair machinery to make all sorts of unwanted changes.” While this new base editor method is being described as “pinpoint precision” and the “most clever CRISPR gadget” thus far, it’s unclear to many researchers what its usefulness or application will be moving forward.

Attempts to wipe out HIV with the CRISPR gene editor only made it stronger” [Source]

A number of researchers have been excited about the potential of CRISPR to deliver a long-sought cure for HIV—in living patients. Using an older gene editing method known as Zinc Finger Nucleases to snip out the CCR5 gene linked to HIV resistance, Sangamo Biosciences (Richmond, CA) is one of a group of biotech companies investigating HIV somatic gene therapies. On April 7, researchers working with CRISPR published some sobering data which showed that using gene editing to disable the HIV virus backfired, as the virus developed mutations near the sites of cuts which blocked RNA-guided CRISPR from making more cuts needed to disable the virus. A number of researchers still have hope for CRISPR providing a one-and-done fix. Some aim to use CRISPR to “carpet-bomb HIV” at multiple sites at once. Others are skeptical about the practicality of CRISPR-ing HIV, given the virus’ renowned resistance, the number of T cells that need to be successfully modified, and the existence of pre-exposure and post-exposure antiretroviral drugs that are being used to manage the disease with increasing success.

CRISPR “CORRECT”-ed

A week later on April 27, researchers laboring under the weight of compelling acronyms reported a new CRISPR method dubbed “CORRECT” (COnsecutive Re-guide or Re-Cas steps to Erase CRISPR/Cas-blocked Targets). Given the messiness of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, the research seeks to enable two new capabilities: stopping Cas9 from cutting again and again, and editing one but not both copies of a target gene. Scientists reacting to the news noted with caution that the CORRECT hack requires inserting three to twenty times the number of molecules into cells as does traditional CRISPR. (Others have previously noted delivery challenges with CRISPR due to the comparatively large size of the Cas9 protein.)

CRISPR-ing DNA and RNA

In a new profile, Nature News describes CRISPR co-discoverer Emmanuelle Charpentier as a “quiet revolutionary” who is looking “not to be defined by CRISPR, which is just one of five themes in her lab.” Charpentier’s latest CRISPR research suggests that an associated protein smaller than Cas9 known as “Cp1f1” can cleave RNA in addition to DNA, and “can do the jobs of both tracrRNA and the Cas9 protein.” The CRISPR-Cp1f1 method was first reported by Charpentier’s patent adversary Feng Zhang in September 2015.

Buffer “Superhero” Genes

Headlines recently proclaimed:

The story was that researchers had worked through almost 600,000 human DNA sequences—the majority from 23andMe users—and found 13 profiles whose medical records showed a lack of symptoms despite the fact they carried a genetic mutation linked to one of eight Mendelian diseases. The researchers have no way of contacting the individuals to confirm their “superhero” status, but the study has excited some researchers about the potential gold to be found at the end of the precision medicine rainbow: a deus ex machina buffer gene to fight monogenic disease. As several observers noted, these “lucky 13” could also lead to dashed hopes at the human margins of sequencing errors.

The genetic unicorns study conjures a handful of philosophical questions relevant to the future of gene editing: What are the biological mysteries that determine phenotype beyond genetics? What are the implications of widespread embryo screening for genetic conditions when false positives are rampant and embryo mosaicism is  poorly understood? What unknown unknowns in the realm of genetic mysteries might forestall the precise genetic modification of future human beings? What known social and political realities caution against gene editing future generations regardless of technical safety?

Resisting genetic determinism, embracing scientific modesty & democratic futures

Creative and potentially exciting, recent CRISPR and related research papers speak to the vast ocean of biological uncertainties that face those venturing into the genome with the intention of divining the cut-and-paste malleability of the human condition. On the eve of a major annual meeting on gene therapy in D.C. on May 4-7, Jocelyn Kaiser writing for Science culled a long list of additional obstacles for researchers to overcome in an article titled “The gene editor CRISPR won’t fully fix sick people anytime soon. Here’s why.”

What harm can a bit of enthusiasm do? For starters, unchecked techno-optimism frustrates the scientific enterprise. It also thwarts the funding of basic public health measures whose impact would be felt more broadly, beyond the upper echelons of biomedical access.

Several recent articles have explored these and related concerns. Columbia law professor Patricia Williams cautions against “a rat race to the patent office, a lunge to own all parts of the genome… A race against time. A race to market. A race to better babies.” As piecemeal gene editing innovations move forward, their value may be difficult to discern over the blaring refrains of the industry hype machine.

Jonathan Latham recently pointed to the “gospel of precision” floating the sails of the CRISPR moonshot and argued for historically minded caution:

The hubris is alarming; but the more subtle element of the propaganda campaign is the biggest and most dangerous improbability of them all: that CRISPR and related technologies are “genome editing”…That is, they are capable of creating precise, accurate and specific alterations to DNA …

Why is this discussion of precision important? Because for the last seventy years all chemical and biological technologies, from genetic engineering to pesticides, have been built on a myth of precision and specificity. They have all been adopted under the pretense that they would function without side effects or unexpected complications. Yet the extraordinary disasters and repercussions of DDT, leaded paint, agent orange, atrazine, C8, asbestos, chlordane, PCBs, and so on, when all is said and done, have been stories of the steady unraveling of a founding myth of precision and specificity.…

[W]e are once again being preached the gospel of precision. But no matter how you look at it, precision is a fable and should be treated as such.

As with many “disruptive” technologies in biotechnology, CRISPR pipedreams are rapidly assembled, dismantled, reassembled; moonshots are breathlessly announced, then fail to rise, then quietly recalibrate.  A world cleansed of genetic disease is repeatedly cast as the carrot to be dangled before an American public starved for more basic health investments. Will the CRISPR revolution bring vegan cats? Who decides what the future of (synthetic) biology looks like?

####
Previously on Biopolitical Times:

Image via Pixabay





10th Anniversary Baby Markets Congress

Posted by Elliot Hosman on April 7th, 2016


Baby Markets: Money and the New Politics of Creating Families (Cambridge University Press 2010, 1st ed., ed. Michele Goodwin)

Untitled Document

“We can only assess the justice of baby markets by stripping away the veneer of ‘freedom,’” said Dorothy Roberts at the Baby Markets International Congress, which met April 1-3 in Southern California. The meeting celebrated the 10th anniversary of the Baby Markets Roundtables series founded by Michele Goodwin, Chancellor’s Professor at UC Irvine Law School, author of Baby Markets (2010), and founder of the Center for Biotechnology and Global Health Policy.

For three days, panelists and participants engaged with assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), reproductive justice, contractual parentage and procreation relationships, genetic testing and selection of embryos, gestational and transnational surrogacy, in vitro fertilization, abortion laws, constitutional rights to procreation and assisted reproduction, LGBT access to adoption and ARTs, selective reduction, and fertility professional negligence.

@DorothyERoberts "baby markets aren't free" keynote address at #BabyMarkets2016 @UCILaw @UCIrvine @Penn pic.twitter.com/7K9AC45Joo

The keynote address by Dorothy Roberts, professor of law and sociology at the University of Pennsylvania and CGS advisory board member, painted a rich picture of the complex systems of oppression that backdrop free trade reproduction. Roberts highlighted the wide-ranging reproductive injustices of abortion bans, neoliberal public healthcare disinvestment in the United States, dependency courts and disruptions of families of color, and centuries of ongoing racism that make it impossible for baby markets to be “liberating” for women of color.

Roberts also reflected on the “new eugenics” that pressures parents to make “the right genetic decisions,” leading to the widespread use of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to select against disability, and the support of a few enthusiasts to attempt next-generation genetic engineering with CRISPR-Cas9 to “edit” the traits of future children. Roberts concluded that debates on the ethics of commercial assisted reproduction must center the people hurt most by market logics: people of color, disabled persons, transgender and intersex persons, and people acting as surrogates. “We can’t solve social problems with better technology,” she said. 

Marcy Darnovsky
, executive director of CGS, and Radhika Rao, professor of law at UC Hastings, separately introduced emerging technologies in reproduction that heighten a number of ongoing concerns about eugenics, informed consent, and elite access to what Roberts earlier referred as a “reproductive caste system” of “built” children. These new technologies include egg freezing, uterine transplants, gametogenesis (stem cell-derived artificial gametes), and CRISPR-Cas9 germline gene editing.

The ART Working Group’s Reproductive Justice panel


The ART Working Group, a collaborative effort between CGS and the Pro-Choice Alliance for Responsible Research (PCARR) that grew out of The Tarrytown Meetings, organized a panel introduced by CGS consultant Emily Galpern that focused on reproductive justice insights into assisted reproduction. UC Davis Professor of Law and CGS fellow Lisa Ikemoto discussed her research on egg providers and the “repro-stratification” of eggs based primarily on race. She noted that “currently we use ARTs to reproduce the nuclear family,” instead of collaborative reproduction marked by reciprocity and kinship.

PCARR co-founder Susan Berke Fogel gave an overview of reproductive justice, focusing on the centrality of women of color in the movement, and the shift away from the reproductive rights conversation about “choice” and privacy toward a holistic understanding of “justice” that looks at oppression and intersectionality, and that doesn’t privilege reproductive rights over other rights. 

Daisy Deomampo
, assistant professor of anthropology at Fordham University, presented research looking at surrogacy and the treatment of intended parents and gestational surrogates in India as a site of racialization that isn’t just “reflective” of oppressive racial hierarchies in the world, but which produces race. She noted that reproductive justice seeks to change structural inequalities, instead of liberating individuals from experiencing them.

Regina Tamés Noriega
from the Grupo de Información en Reproducción Elegida (GIRE) in Mexico discussed the recent expansion of transnational surrogacy in Tabasco and Cancún. She described policymakers’ sudden focus on regulating surrogacy despite their lack of interest in regulating other forms of assisted reproduction, potentially because it represents a way to control women’s bodies.

Reproductive Justice Film Festival

The 10th Baby Markets Congress also included a Reproductive Justice Film Festival. Three documentary films were screened during the weekend: 

Misconception (forthcoming), dir. Civia Tamarkin, showcases the “collateral damage” and “friendly fire” of the abortion wars, and the political indoctrination of youth into the anti-abortion movement.

Young Lakota (2012), dirs. Rose Rosenblatt and Marion Lipschutz, follows three youth living on the Pine Ridge reservation of the Oglala Sioux tribe who experience political awakenings around the issue of abortion.

Beautiful Sin (2014), dir. Gabriela Quirós, documents the political battle around embryo personhood and assisted reproduction in Costa Rica. A ban on IVF that passed in 2000  was finally lifted by a presidential decree ruled valid by the Inter-American Court on Human Rights in February 2016.


Thank you!

We learned so much from the fascinating papers, discussions, and research presented by the scholars, policy-makers, civil society advocates, journalists, and activists in attendance. Thanks to Michele Goodwin and all the participants!

About the Baby Markets Organizer and Sponsors

Michele Bratcher Goodwin
’s research engages law’s interaction with the body across multiple spheres, encompassing organ transplantation, reproduction, tissue harvesting, sex and marriage trafficking, and international surrogacy, among other topics. Goodwin recently edited The Global Body Market: Altruism’s Limits, published in 2013.

The International Congress was supported by generous contributions from the University of California, Irvine Medical Humanities Initiative, School of Law, and donors: Greg Rose and Pat Wilson, and co-sponsorsCenter on Globalization, Law, and Society (GLAS)Department of Criminology, Law and SocietyDepartment of Gender and Sexuality StudiesProgram in Public HealthReproductive Justice Initiative; and School of Social Ecology.


Previously on Biopolitical Times:





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