Search


 
 
Blog : Displaying 9-12 of 1209


Human Germline Modification in the UK? Cries of Caution from all Corners

Posted by Jessica Cussins on November 13th, 2014


Untitled Document

The UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee held an evidence hearing on October 22 to discuss the science of what they euphemistically call “mitochondrial donation.”

The Committee has now published all of the evidence it received for that hearing. Out of twenty submissions, just five explicitly argue in favor of changing the current UK law prohibiting human inheritable genetic modification in order to allow three-person IVF. These arguments largely consist of emotional pleas from families that currently have a child suffering from mitochondrial disease, and that want to utilize the technology in an attempt to have an unaffected and genetically related child.

The other fifteen submissions warn that we are nowhere near being able to promise these families a healthy child. Three make the case that more evidence is needed prior to offering these techniques in fertility clinics. Twelve argue that the risks to women and children are so great that we need to rethink this entire route as a means to prevent inter-generational transmission of disease.

None of these detailed letters were mentioned at the hearing. When I wrote a blog about it a couple weeks ago, I used the provocative title, “What Good is a Scientific Meeting If You Dismiss the Science?” Now that I’ve seen all the evidence the Committee received, I’m wondering if “Dismiss” should be replaced with “Systematically Ignore.” In fact, one scientist who submitted an eleven-page correspondence on concerns about “the safety of the procedures and the health of the children created through them,” notes

The entire public debate and consultation process surrounding mitochondrial replacement has been based on disastrously flawed scientific assumptions.

He’s not wrong.

Although this latest bundle of correspondence is unlikely to get much media attention, the advent of yet more well-documented public criticism could leave its mark.  Leading stem cell scientist Paul Knoepfler wrote an open letter to UK Parliament warning that allowing human trials of three-person IVF at this time would be an “historic mistake.” And the editors at the New Scientist recently changed their tune to assert that these techniques are “more messy than [they] thought” because “children conceived in this way will inherit vital traits from three parents.”

What will be determined at the upcoming Parliamentary vote is still anyone’s guess.

Previously on Biopolitical Times:





FIXED: The Science/Fiction of Human Enhancement

Posted by Jonathan Chernoguz on November 12th, 2014


Untitled Document

FIXED: The Science/Fiction of Human Enhancement, the documentary produced and directed by Regan Brashear, has recently shifted to the center of a variety of discussions and symposia on normalcy and disability. 

The University of Rochester is hosting its first-ever Disability Studies Cluster Symposium this Friday, November 14, which has been crafted and organized around the film.  The symposium is titled “Complicating Normalcy: Disability, Technology, and Society in the Twenty-First Century.” 

The film will also be screened on opening night at the Other Film Festival, the largest disability film festival in Australia, on December 3.  Additionally, the United Nations has just licensed the film for its work on the Convention for Rights of People with Disabilities.

FIXED questions commonly held beliefs about disability and normalcy by exploring technologies that promise to change our bodies and mind forever. The film follows five people with disabilities and explores the implications new human enhancing technologies have on them. 

Clark Miller, Associate Director of the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at ASU, raved about its interdisciplinary importance for students and faculty,

This film is extremely important and will be very valuable for faculty from dozens of different disciplines from the biological sciences to disability studies to the humanities and social sciences, precisely because it confronts one of the central issues of our time: how to make sense of variations among human beings and how to make sense of our capacity for radical technological innovation that will change our entire futures.

Brashear has been in touch with CGS since the beginning of production, and the documentary features CGS Executive Director Marcy Darnovsky sharing her concern about the potential misuses of new and emerging human biotechnologies. 

FIXED was screened at Future Past: Disability, Eugenics, and Brave New Worlds in 2013, a public symposium that CGS co-organized with the Paul K. Longmore Institute on Disability, Facing History and Ourselves, and Living Archives on Eugenics in Western Canada. This symposium focused on the historical and ongoing implications of eugenic ideologies and practices for people with disabilities, and FIXED synthesized many topics of the day, while providing new food for thought. 

Also in 2013, CGS hosted a Talking Biopolitics conversation with Regan Brashear, in which she discussed the reception of the film.

FIXED is a great film for promoting discussion about the profound implications of new technologies on the lives of people with – and without – disabilities. It's wonderful to see it getting so much well-deserved attention. To learn more about the film, watch the trailer, or buy a copy, see more here.

Previously on Biopolitical Times:





Patently Absurd? Or Absurdly Patentable?

Posted by Pete Shanks on November 12th, 2014


WARF logo

The US Supreme Court might agree to rule on the validity of stem-cell patents, and the Canadian courts are being asked to invalidate a patent on disease-linked genes. These suits may not succeed, but they do indicate that the legal issues around patenting human genes and tissues have not yet been resolved.

David Jensen of the California Stem Cell Report has a run-down on the stem-cell patent held by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation, better known as WARF. The case has been brewing since 2006, and an appeals court ruled in favor of WARF earlier this year. Technically, the latest appeal is about standing to sue — Consumer Watchdog is the plaintiff, working with Jeanne Loring of Scripps and the Public Patent Foundation. However, the underlying question, as Michael Hiltzik pointed out in the Los Angeles Times, is: Can scientists patent life? The Supreme Court may refuse to take the case; if it does, it may make a very narrow ruling. Or, of course, not.

Meanwhile, in Canada, an Ottawa hospital is challenging patents that cover a genetic test for a heart condition. The patents involved are held by the University of Utah, Genzyme Genetics and Yale University. The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) in Ottawa reckons they can do the test for less than half the $4500 price, and besides:

"Our position is very straightforward," Alex Munter, the hospital's CEO, told a news conference. "No one should be able to patent human DNA, it would be like patenting air or water."

If the Canadian suit succeeds, it will contradict the position recently taken by the Australian Supreme Court and extend the influence of the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in the Myriad case.

Previously on Biopolitical Times:







Are All Pluripotent Stem Cells Equal?

Posted by Pete Shanks on November 12th, 2014


Research cloning of humans has always been controversial, because the technology (if ever perfected) would require women’s eggs — many, many eggs if it led to therapies — and would certainly make human reproductive cloning technically more feasible. There were therefore sighs of relief when Shinya Yamanaka discovered how to reprogram readily available somatic cells to become pluripotent, for which he won a Nobel Prize.

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were such an exciting development that many people thought that there was no longer any point in pursuing research cloning, or generating pluripotent embryonic stem cells via nuclear transfer (NT-ESCs). After all, it hadn’t been done after years of trying. But not everyone agreed.

Last year, a team at Oregon State led by Shoukhrat Mitalipov did report success in generating NT-ESCs, and in 2014 two other teams duplicated the result: one led by Dieter Egli’s team at the New York Stem Cell Foundation, the other a collaboration between the Korean Cha Institute and Advanced Cell Technology.

The stakes were raised further when a consortium (including Mitalipov’s team) published a paper in Nature in July that claimed that NT-ESCs were clearly better than iPSCs. Comparing both with stem cells derived from standard IVF embryos, this paper asserted that the iPSCs had flaws, whereas:

human somatic cells can be faithfully reprogrammed to pluripotency by SCNT [somatic cell nuclear transfer] and are therefore ideal for cell replacement therapies.

Not so fast.

A new study led by Dieter Egli’s team (but again including Mitalipov) was just published in Cellcomparing NT-ESCs and iPSCs:

The two cell types showed similar genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiles. … The occurrence of these genetic and epigenetic defects in both NT-ESCs and iPSCs suggests that they are inherent to reprogramming, regardless of derivation approach.

This is particularly noteworthy, coming as it does from people who have been promoting and working on SCNT for many years.

For more detailed analysis, see the Stem Cell Blog of UC Davis professor Paul Knoepfler. He makes the strong point that, given the ethical and practical problems with cloning, NT-ESCs really would have to be significantly better than iPSCs to be worth pursuing — and the new research suggests that they are not.

Nevertheless, all the scientists involved advocate pursuing all lines of research, specifically including nuclear transfer, even though they oppose using it for human reproduction. Which provides further support for the longstanding argument that, at a minimum, the United States needs a firm, specific, national law banning human reproductive cloning.

Previously on Biopolitical Times:





Displaying 9-12 of 1209  
< Prev  Next >> 
« First Page Last Page » 
« Show Complete List » 

 


ESPAÑOL | PORTUGUÊS | Русский

home | overview | blog | publications | about us | donate | newsletter | press room | privacy policy

CGS • 1936 University Ave, Suite 350, Berkeley, CA 94704 USA • • (p) 1.510.625.0819 • (F) 1.510.665.8760