Home Overview Press Room Blog Publications For Students about us
Search

About Reproductive Justice, Health, Rights & Human Biotechnology


Many applications of human biotechnologies, especially those involving reproduction, involve women's bodies. As these technologies are developed and used, women's well-being must be a central concern and reproductive rights must be firmly protected.

Assisted reproduction technologies have helped many people who otherwise could not have become parents of biologically related children. But these technologies tend to be costly and invasive. Their success rates, though improving, are still low. Most important, the long-term risks to women and children have not been well studied. Treating infertility has become a highly competitive business, and the field itself is notoriously under-regulated. Many experimental techniques are put into clinical use before they are adequately tested.

Other social, ethical, and practical concerns have also been raised: payments to encourage economically vulnerable women to provide eggs for other women's fertility treatment or to become surrogates; the increasing number of fertility clinics that offer social sex selection; and other forms of screening, testing, and selecting embryos. More radical reproductive technologies such as reproductive cloning and inheritable genetic modification (changing the genes we pass on to our children) are being used in animals, and though clearly dangerous, are being contemplated for use by humans.

It is not uncommon for those advocating these technologies to appropriate the language of reproductive choice to argue that parents should have the "right" to choose their children's characteristics. But as an increasing number of reproductive rights leaders point out, there are important differences between choosing when and whether to bear a child and creating a child with specified traits.

Advocates of technologies that would pre-determine the traits of future generations argue that these are "enhancements" that would improve the lives of children. But in addition to serious physical risks, significant social and psychological hazards are likely. Children born with pre-selected traits would come into the world expected to look, act, and perform according to specifications. Unreasonable and unfulfilled parental expectations can certainly flourish without these technologies, but expectations grounded in scientific claims and expensive procedures would likely be far more pronounced.



California needs to do more than apologize to people it sterilizedby The Times editorial boardLos Angeles Times January 21st, 2017State officials should quickly begin tracking down these elderly victims who were abused decades ago while under the state’s care. Time is short to do right by them.
Controversial IVF technique produces a baby girl -- and for some, that's a problemby Susan ScuttiCNNJanuary 18th, 2017Stakes are rising as genetic modifications produced in a girl baby could be passed onto her future children. The risks remain unknown.
CGS Board Member Leads Redress Call for California Survivors of Eugenic Sterilization by Marcy DarnovskyJanuary 16th, 2017Scholars estimate that more than 800 people alive today were sterilized in California state institutions, and call on the state to consider compensation and redress.
Fertility Futility: Procedures Claimed to Boost IVF Success Lack Supporting Evidenceby Sandy OngNewsweekJanuary 12th, 2017Of nearly 30 expensive clinic add-ons reviewed by researchers, only one drew some evidence of boosting the chances of having a baby.
The Promise and Peril of Emerging Reproductive Technologiesby Ekaterina PeshevaHarvard Medical SchoolJanuary 11th, 2017IVG, thus far successful only in mice, allows scientists to create embryos in a lab by reprogramming any type of adult cell to become a sperm or egg cell.
How Gene Editing Could Ruin Human Evolution[cites CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by Jim KozubekTimeJanuary 9th, 2017There are no superior genes. Genes have a long and layered history, and they often have three or four unrelated functions, which balance against each other under selection.
Designer babies: an ethical horror waiting to happen?by Philip BallThe Guardian January 8th, 2017A perfectly feasible 10-20% improvement in health via PGD, added to the comparable advantage that wealth already brings, could lead to a widening of the health gap between rich and poor, both within a society and between nations.
Philippine police arrest surrogate mothers-to-be in human trafficking crackdownby Lindsay MurdochSydney Morning HeraldJanuary 4th, 2017International surrogacy agents operate across multiple borders, flying surrogates, eggs, doctors and parents to whichever country is the most porous for their business.
2016 Fear vs Hope: Gene Editing— Terrible turning point?by Pete ShanksDeccan ChronicleJanuary 1st, 2017As the tools for gene editing rapidly advance, we approach our best chance to prevent the rise of a modern, uncontrolled and dangerously ill-considered techno-eugenics.
Unexpected Risks Found In Replacing DNA To Prevent Inherited Disordersby Jill NeimarkNPRJanuary 1st, 2017Scientists are increasingly concerned that "3-person IVF" techniques may allow flawed mitochondria to resurface and threaten a child's health.
Why tech offers better fertility benefits than other industries[cites CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by Alison DeNiscoTech RepublicDecember 21st, 2016The benefits are part of the current talent war for engineers and other professionals. Tech workers should be cautious about using the procedures.
Eugenics warningby Alexandra Minna SternIssues in Science and TechnologyDecember 20th, 2016The eugenic past can be a useful compass when considering present and future uses of genetic technologies.
Babies made from three people approved in UKby James GallagherBBC NewsDecember 15th, 2016Some scientists have questioned the technique, saying it could open the door to genetically-modified 'designer' babies.
We Launched a New Website! Surrogacy360by Kiki Zeldes, Biopolitical Times guest contributorDecember 14th, 2016Surrogacy360 provides accurate information and resources, free of commercial interest, for people considering surrogacy outside the United States.
Biopolitical News of 2016by Pete Shanks, Leah Lowthorp & Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesDecember 13th, 2016We highlight 2016’s trends in and top news stories about human biotech developments.
Slippery Slopes and Biological Curve Balls: Updates on 3-person IVFby Leah LowthorpBiopolitical TimesDecember 13th, 2016There have been several recent setbacks and troubling developments in 3-person IVF technology and applications.
Historians seek reparations for Californians forcibly sterilizedby Ronnie CohenReuters HealthDecember 12th, 2016Alexandra Stern and colleagues investigated over 20,000 documents from the state's eugenics program. Many victims are alive today; California, like other states, should offer them financial compensation.
Exclusive: Mexico clinic plans 20 ‘three-parent’ babies in 2017by Michael Le PageNew ScientistDecember 9th, 2016Mexico has no specific regulations governing mitochondrial replacement or assisted reproduction.
Trump, Science and Social Justiceby Pete ShanksDecember 8th, 2016President-elect Trump's appointments, so far, are frightening to anyone who cares about science, or social, economic and environmental justice.
New ​Chair of ​our ​Diversity ​and​ Health Disparities​ Research Cluster​ on Colorblindness and the Need for a New Biopoliticsby Sara GrossmanHaas Institute, UC BerkeleyDecember 2nd, 2016In a faculty profile interview, CGS Fellow Osagie Obasogie discusses colorblindness and biopolitics.
How Will Trump Use Science to Further His Political Agenda?by Sarah ZhangThe AtlanticDecember 1st, 2016We have a president-elect who appears to believe in his genetic superiority, with a chief strategist who has been reported to believe the same.
"3-Parent Baby" Procedure Faces New Hurdleby Karen WeintraubScientific AmericanNovember 30th, 2016Mitochondrial disease can somehow creep back in, even if an affected mother’s mitochondria are virtually eliminated.
'No solid evidence' for IVF add-on successby Deborah CohenBBC PanoramaNovember 28th, 2016A year-long study finds that nearly all costly add-on treatments offered by UK fertility clinics are unreliable, misleading, and risky.
Cambodia charges Australian nurse for running surrogacy clinicby Prak Chan ThulReutersNovember 21st, 2016As many South Asian countries take steps to clamp down on commercial surrogacy tourism, stakeholders are confronted with charges.
Why the Deaf Community Fears President Trumpby Sara NovicVICENovember 18th, 2016According to his biographer, Trump subscribes to a racehorse theory of human development and the superiority of certain genes — an echo of eugenics.
With Fertility Rate in China Low, Some Press to Legalize Births Outside Marriageby Didi Kirsten TatlowThe New York TimesNovember 17th, 2016Civil society groups are calling for greater reproductive freedom for single women, which would also affect lesbians.
Abortion-By-Mail Study Outrages Opponentsby Phil GalewitzKQED California HealthlineNovember 16th, 2016A pilot study of telemedicine-based medical abortion demonstrates a welcome new option for women. Opponents of abortion find the concept deeply disturbing.
Increase in IVF complications raises concerns over use of fertility drugsby Hannah DevlinThe Guardian [US]November 13th, 2016Stronger drugs used to harvest more eggs could also be linked to a 40% increase in cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
ACCC puts IVF clinics 'on notice' over misleading success rate claimsby Madeleine MorrisABC [Australia]November 13th, 2016Some major Australian fertility clinics changed confusing marketing messages on their websites after a consumer group's investigation documented their misleading claims.
A Call to Protect the Health of Women Who Donate Their Eggsby Judy Norsigian and Dr. Timothy R.B. JohnsonThe Women’s Health ActivistNovember 12th, 2016The egg market is growing, yet long-term safety data does not exist to enable donors to make informed choices about selling their eggs.
Stem Cell Researchers Anxious About Trump Presidencyby Gillian MohneyABC NewsNovember 11th, 2016Mike Pence opposes federal funding for embryonic stem cell research. But reintroducing a funding ban "would be like putting a genie back in the bottle."
Germany's sperm bank plans leakedby Ben KnightDeutsche WelleNovember 3rd, 2016The German government is making good on its promise to the children of sperm donors by setting up a central database to make it easier for them to find their biological fathers.
Cambodia bans booming commercial surrogacy industryby AFPChannel News AsiaNovember 3rd, 2016A government edict makes Cambodia the latest country to ban commercial surrogacy after prohibitions in other parts of the globe sparked a local boom in business.
The shifting landscape in biosocial scienceby Brett MilanoHarvard GazetteNovember 1st, 2016Dorothy Roberts' two-part Tanner Lectures examine how a profound shift in biosocial science is affecting race and social inequality.
Male birth control shot found effective, but side effects cut study shortby Susan ScuttiCNNNovember 1st, 2016Study's findings draw concern over whether contraceptive benefits outweigh the risks for men and women (which could be fatal).
UK's national sperm bank stops recruiting donorsby Laura LeaBBCOctober 27th, 2016A joint project set up with a small government grant in response to couples turning to foreign markets for sperm yielded only seven donors.
Are Altered Mosquitoes a Public Health Project, or a Business?by Antonio RegaladoMIT Technology ReviewOctober 27th, 2016The fight against dengue and Zika in Latin America is turning into a contest between mosquito-altering technologies, and between profits and public health.
The Cash Cow in 'Fertility' Medicineby Pamela M TsigdinosHealthcare in AmericaOctober 23rd, 2016The unregulated fertility industry often fails to disclose: lucrative profits, poor outcomes, emotional burdens, and medical risks.
Just What We Need: Slicker Infertility Marketingby Gina Maranto, Biopolitical Times guest contributorOctober 21st, 2016A serial tech entrepreneur launches a new start-up called Prelude with a hipster-chic website downplaying the many unknowns of egg freezing.
First Spindle Nuclear Transfer Baby Has Low Mutant DNA Loadby Kate JohnsonMedscapeOctober 20th, 2016At the ASRM Scientific Congress, fertility doctors said they would continue using the mitochondrial manipulation procedure.
Should young women sell their eggs?by Donna de la CruzThe New York TimesOctober 20th, 2016The number of eggs used for IVF procedures is increasing, but few studies have been done on the long-term impact egg retrieval has on a woman’s fertility and overall health.
Surprisingly few new parents enlist in study to have baby's genome sequencedby Jocelyn KaiserScience MagazineOctober 19th, 2016The NIH-funded project, BabySeq, seeks to analyze protein-coding DNA for mutations in 7000 genes associated with childhood diseases.
The Misleading Promise of I.V.F. for Women Over 40by Jane E. BrodyThe New York TimesOctober 17th, 2016The fertility industry focuses on the 20 percent of women who succeed, not the 80 percent failure rate.
Meet Prelude Fertility, The $200 Million Startup That Wants To Stop The Biological Clock[citing CGS' Marcy Darnovsky]by Miguel HelftForbesOctober 17th, 2016Despite the short and long-term risks of egg retrieval, fertility companies target young people as a new customer base, putting profits ahead of safety.
Mouse eggs made from skin cells in a dishby David CyranoskiNatureOctober 17th, 2016A research breakthrough sparks debate over the prospect of using stem cell techniques to produce synthetic human eggs from body tissue.
DNA database could help predict your disease — then get you firedby David LazarusLos Angeles TimesOctober 14th, 2016Precision medicine raises the disturbing prospect of genetic haves and have-nots, and of discrimination based not on race, age or gender but on health.
Three-person baby 'race' dangerous[citing CGS' Marcy Darnovsky]by James GallagherBBCOctober 12th, 2016Scientists and ethicists warn of fertility doctors forum-shopping to perform dangerous mitochondrial manipulation experiments.
Some I.V.F. Experts Discourage Multiple Birthsby Jane E. BrodyThe New York TimesOctober 10th, 2016The first IVF baby resulted from a single transferred embryo. After years of encouraging multiple embryo transfers and multiple births, the rates are finally dropping.
President signs Senate bill that protects eugenics victimsby Richard CraverWinston-Salem JournalOctober 7th, 2016State restitution payments will not decrease or eliminate federal benefits for people who were forcibly sterilized.
Uterus Transplants Fail Again: Why Are They So Difficult?by Rachael RettnerLive ScienceOctober 5th, 2016Four uterus transplants using live donors took place in Dallas, a first in the U.S. But three of the uteruses had to be removed due to lack of proper blood flow.
Boys conceived through IVF technique have lower than average fertilityby Hannah DevlinThe GuardianOctober 5th, 2016Tests on young men conceived via intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection show that they have on average lower sperm quantity and mobility.
Words Matter: "Hired Womb" vs. "Birth Mother"by Abby LippmanImpact EthicsOctober 3rd, 2016The words we choose to talk about gestational arrangements influence how we think about and regulate third-party reproduction.
Sally Phillips: Do We Really Want a World without Down’s Syndrome?by Viv GroskopThe Guardian October 1st, 2016The UK national health service will now cover new tests to screen fetuses for Down syndrome. A mother and actress notes the likely result: "It becomes ‘your fault’ if you choose to have the baby."
The VA Will Now Pay For Fertility Treatment For Wounded Vetsby Merrit KennedyNPRSeptember 30th, 2016Congress overturns a 1992 law in order to provide benefits to veterans with reproductive injuries looking to build families.
Why we need a law to prevent genetic discriminationby Yvonne Bombard, Ronald Cohn & Stephen SchererThe Globe and Mail [Canada]September 19th, 2016After unanimous passage through Canada's Senate, a bill on genetic discrimination is now before the House of Commons.
Why Some Of India's Surrogate Moms Are Full Of Regretby Julie McCarthyNPRSeptember 18th, 2016Women employed as surrogates are rarely in a position to change the fundamental circumstance of their poverty because the payments simply aren't enough.
Peru Fails to Deliver for Indigenous Womenby Shena CavalloopenDemocracySeptember 12th, 2016Some 300,000 poor rural indigenous people were forcibly sterilized according to state "quotas," but a public prosecutor has decided not to pursue charges of "crimes against humanity."
Victory: Eggs-for-Research Bill Dies in California Legislatureby Emily Galpern, Biopolitical Times guest contributorSeptember 8th, 2016A bill that would have expanded the commercial markets for human eggs, putting women’s health at risk, never made it to the Governor’s desk.
Remembering Ruth Hubbardby Marcy DarnovskySeptember 8th, 2016Ruth Hubbard — biologist, feminist scholar, social justice advocate, and critic of what she termed “the gene myth” — has died.
5 Reasons Why We Need People with Disabilities in the CRISPR Debatesby Emily Beitiks, Biopolitical Times guest contributorSeptember 8th, 2016“Why do I have to keep justifying my existence?” How gene editing policy discussions reproduce ableist assumptions and generate advocacy fatigue.
Women Freeze Eggs to Gain Time to Find the Right Partners Study Findsby Nicola DavisThe Guardian September 7th, 2016"It is quite dangerous to start suggesting that by medicalising a social problem, we can cure it."
Passing My Disability On to My Childrenby Sheila BlackThe New York TimesSeptember 7th, 2016Drawing on hew own experience, the author challenges the logic of creating "designer babies" with screening or modifying technologies.
Sperm Donor at Heart of Canadian Lawsuits Admits He Lied to Company Xytex, Police Sayby Diana MehtaThe Canadian PressAugust 30th, 2016Amidst pending lawsuits, Sperm Donor 9623 has turned himself in to the police for "falsifying paperwork."
Why India’s New Surrogacy Bill Is Bad For Womenby Sharmila RudrappaThe Huffington PostAugust 26th, 2016In an attempt to regulate surrogacy, the bill has further deregulated the industry and opened the possibilities for deeper harms to working class women.
The Little-Known History of the Forced Sterilization of Native American Womenby Erin BlakemoreJSTOR DailyAugust 25th, 2016Both the IHS and its dark history of forced sterilization were the result of longstanding, often ham-fisted attempts to "address" American Indians’ health care needs.
New Surrogacy Bill Bars Married Couples with Kids, NRIs, Gays, Live-ins, Foreignersby Express News ServiceThe Indian ExpressAugust 25th, 2016The draft bill permits only "altruistic surrogacy" for childless couples who have been married for at least five years.
Surrogacy Still Big Business in Shanghai Despite National Banby Alice YanSouth China Morning PostAugust 25th, 2016Since China's one-child policy relaxed two years ago, the surrogacy industry has been expanding despite recent police raids.
Babies’ Health Could Be Affected by Variation in IVF Nutrientsby Jessica HamzelouNew Scientist August 24th, 2016Pharmaceutical companies keep the "recipe" of IVF culture media a secret, but research suggests long-term health effects for resulting children.
Diversity, disability and eugenics: An interview with Rob Sparrowby Xavier SymonsBioEdgeAugust 11th, 2016Philosophers and the medical profession have been way too swift to make judgments about other people’s quality of life. We're not as far from the bad old eugenics as many think.
Inside New York’s Radical Egg-Freezing Clinic for Women[citing CGS' Marcy Darnovsky]by Lizzie Crocker & Abby HaglageThe Daily BeastAugust 10th, 2016Extend Fertility in Manhattan offers egg freezing at half market price. It’s also the first standalone practice of its kind in the U.S.
Mind your genes! The dark legacy of eugenics lives onby Natasha MillerABC [Australia]August 8th, 2016The misguided science of behavioral genetics and the social engineering potential of CRISPR show we have much to remember about the history of eugenics.
Booming demand, state protections attract commercial surrogate birthingby Kathy RobertsonSacramento BeeAugust 5th, 2016California has more surrogacy regulation than most states. But the founder of an agency comments, "Anybody in the whole world – even a felon – can open an agency. There is no licensing, no background check."
The Human Egg Business: More Media Coverage of California Cash-for-Eggs Legislation[citing CGS]by David JensenCalifornia Stem Cell ReportAugust 5th, 2016AB 2531, backed by the fertility industry, would remove caps on payments for egg retrieval, thus inducing women to gamble with their health.
Bill to expand market in women’s egg donations would undermine safeguards[citing CGS]by Deborah OrtizSacramento BeeAugust 4th, 2016Let’s not repeal a law that safeguards the health of women. We can support biomedical research without putting women’s health at risk.
In crisis-hit Venezuela young women seek sterilisationby Alexandra UlmerReutersAugust 3rd, 2016Food shortages, inflation, crumbling medical sector, and anti-abortion climate have caused a growing number of women to reluctantly opt for tubal ligations.
It's time for a conversation on parental surrogacy rulesby Celine CooperMontreal GazetteJuly 31st, 2016Is Montreal inching closer to relaxing or even abandoning its entrenched disapproval of procreative surrogacy?
35 couples used surrogates since new law in placeThe Nation [Thailand]July 31st, 2016Government agencies will track outcomes for women working as surrogates and children born in surrogacy arrangements, and analyse information on ways to improve regulations.
Congress wrestles with providing fertility benefits for injured veterans and servicemembersby Karoun DemirjianThe Washington PostJuly 27th, 2016Senator Patty Murray believes the ban on IVF and other fertility options is outdated.
Turning back the biological clock comes at a price by Rhiannon Lucy CosslettThe GuardianJuly 25th, 2016Egg freezing is marketed as the answer to precarious young lives yet excludes most of those it claims to help.
What No One Tells You About Egg Donorsby Leah CampbellMom.meJuly 22nd, 2016The profit-driven egg industry does not take the medical needs of egg donors or their right to informed choice seriously.
Should we pay women to donate their eggs for research? No, and here's why.[citing CGS’ Marcy Darnovsky, fellow Lisa Ikemoto]by Michael HiltzikThe Los Angeles TimesJuly 22nd, 2016The risks of egg retrieval, particularly long-term risks, are not yet understood due to a lack of studies.
Sperm Banks Accused of Losing Samples and Lying About Donorsby Tamar LewinThe New York TimesJuly 21st, 2016Sperm banks are not required to verify information provided by sperm donors.
Who should we believe when it comes to fertility?New ScientistJuly 20th, 2016Difficult choices over when to start a family are not made any easier by conflicting signals from doctors and fertility clinics.
Fertility doc Antinori indictedASNAJuly 20th, 2016The fertility doctor is charged with forcibly removing eggs from a patient, who told police he bound and sedated her. The doctor has accused her of being a member of ISIS.
I.V.F. Does Not Raise Breast Cancer Risk, Study Showsby Catherine Saint LouisThe New York TimesJuly 19th, 2016While the study is large and comprehensive, its results remain inconclusive and contradict other studies.
The Dark Secrets of this Now-Empty Island in Maineby David JesterAtlas ObscuraJuly 14th, 2016Malaga Island was home to a fishing community. But in 1911, a racist pseudoscience and greedy politicians changed all that.
Frozen Eggs and Heated Debatesby Angel Petropanagos, Biopolitical Times guest contributorJuly 12th, 2016What’s missing and what’s misrepresented in public debates about social egg freezing?
Eugenics bill passes Houseby Kevin EllisShelby StarJuly 7th, 2016The North Carolina bill will ensure that compensation payments to victims of the state's eugenic sterilization program are not counted as income.
Center for Genetics and Society Floor Alert in Opposition to California AB 2531The Center for Genetics and Society urges the California Senate to oppose a proposed bill that would expand payments to women to provide their eggs for research.
Updates: The California Legislature and the Market in Human Eggsby Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesJune 30th, 2016The fertility industry-sponsored bill is opposed by a range of women’s health, reproductive justice, and public interest organizations.
Eugenics victim still waiting for last paymentby Tim BucklandStar News OnlineJune 25th, 2016North Carolina's fund to compensate victims of its eugenic sterilization program is in limbo, with lawsuits pending.
As surrogacy industry expands, legal and ethical issues mulledby Bun Sengkong & Will JacksonThe Phnom Penh PostJune 23rd, 2016Surrogacy agencies in Cambodia and websites such as Gay with Kids facilitate cross-border surrogacy, although the Cambodian government remains unclear on surrogacy policies.
Book Review: Discounted Life - The Price of Global Surrogacy in Indiaby Ëlo LuikBioNewsJune 20th, 2016Rudrappa locates surrogacy within the histories of politics and control as well as aspiration, nationalism and modernisation that the bodies of working-class Indian women have long been subjects of and subjected to.
DIY sperm test to hit the market this fallby Meghana KeshavanSTAT NewsJune 20th, 2016The semen centrifuge will calculate sperm count, but not sperm motility or other factors that affect fertility.
Do women who donate their eggs run a health risk?by Sandra G. BoodmanThe Washington PostJune 20th, 2016Health advocates say that donors are being falsely reassured that the process is safe, without being told that there is no definitive research.
Subsidised egg freezing isn’t the answer to Japan’s birth rateby Angel PetropanagosNew ScientistJune 17th, 2016The health risks of egg retrieval make Japan's publicly-funded egg freezing initiative a poor solution to the country's problem of population shrinkage.
Good riddance to a repugnant California cap on family aidby The Times Editorial BoardThe Los Angeles TimesJune 16th, 2016The “maximum family grant” discouraged women on welfare from having more children.
House votes to expand compensation for eugenics victims by Colin CampbellThe News & ObserverJune 13th, 2016The North Carolina House voted to expand a program to compensate people who were sterilized by the state government from 1929 to 1974.
The Politics of Women’s Eggsby Diane ToberUndarkJune 10th, 2016A California bill would allow researchers to obtain eggs by paying women to provide them, though little research exists on the procedure's long-term health impacts.
Swiss back genetic testing of embryos (again)by Celia LuterbacherSwiss InfoJune 5th, 2016Testing embryos can prevent transmission of serious genetic diseases, but also threatens discrimination against people with disabilities and a "slippery slope toward eugenics."
White Southern Girlhood and Eugenics: A Talk With Historian Karin Zipf by Tina VasquezRewireMay 27th, 2016The same white supremacy that declared Black men and women to be hypersexual also subjected troubled or abused white girls to incarceration and state-sponsored sterilizations to make sure the teens did not pass on "bad" genes.
Should Women Be Able to Abort a Fetus Just Because It’s Female?by Emma GreenThe AtlanticMay 16th, 2016A new wave of state legislation that prohibits abortion based on sex, race, and genetic abnormality, is "meant to put women in this queasy position of having to justify two things that might not fit together in one political belief."
Controversial Italian fertility doctor accused of stealing patient's eggby Stephanie KirchgaessnerThe Guardian [UK]May 15th, 2016A patient has accused an Italian fertility doctor of forcibly operating on her and harvesting her eggs.
Fertility watchdog ‘increasingly concerned’ about dubious treatments sold by private clinics as experts warn childless couples are being exploitedby Ian JohnstonThe Independent [UK]May 15th, 2016Private fertility clinics may be offering "add-on" treatments that are unwarranted and ineffective, with consequences for patients' health and finances.
I Want To Put A Baby In You: The Curious Case Of Louisianaby Ellen TrachmanAbove the LawMay 4th, 2016Instead of reasonable regulation, the pending Louisiana bill transparently limits the types of people who can enter surrogacy arrangements.
Why Does Silicon Valley Want to Get So Many Women Pregnant?by Sarah EmersonMotherboard [VICE]April 22nd, 2016Women’s fertility apps have found a profitable niche in the predominantly male tech scene. The tech industry hopes they’ll deliver a lot of valuable private information.
Here’s Why that Race-Sex Abortion Ban Bill is So Discriminatoryby Sital KalantryWomen's eNewsApril 19th, 2016The bill accuses women of racially discriminating against their own fetuses.
Meet the feminists who are trying to stop the ‘dictator’s’ daughter from becoming presidentby Manuel RuedaFusionApril 8th, 2016More than 300,000 Peruvian women, most of them poor and indigenous, were sterilized by a birth control program run by president Alberto Fujimori during the 1990s.
Yeast Infection Led to Removal of Transplanted Uterusby Denise GradyThe New York TimesApril 8th, 2016Just two weeks after the first US uterus transplant, the organ had to be removed because a common yeast infection posed life-threatening risks.
10th Anniversary Baby Markets Congressby Elliot HosmanApril 7th, 2016Legal scholars, social scientists, advocates, and filmmakers grapple with assisted reproduction.
Canadian Eugenics Survivor and Activist Leilani Muir Dies at Age 71 by Natalie OveyssiBiopolitical TimesApril 7th, 2016Leilani Muir was an author, speaker, and activist for survivors of eugenic sterilization.
Will California Expand the Market for Women’s Eggs?by Marcy DarnovskyApril 7th, 2016A bill sponsored by the fertility industry seeks yet again to overturn existing policies that allow reimbursement of out-of-pocket expenses for women who provide eggs for research, but not inducements of thousands of dollars beyond that.
The Surrogacy Cycleby Abby RabinowitzThe Virginia Quarterly ReviewMarch 31st, 2016Promising an escape from poverty, transnational surrogacy has left many Indian women with little to show for their efforts. What went wrong?
Race, Reparations and the Search for Our Molecular Soulby Michael SchulsonReligion Dispatches (USC Annenberg)March 30th, 2016In a recent book, Alondra Nelson maps the rise of genetic testing among African Americans, investigating the ways that genetic technology is crossing over into social and political worlds.
IVF Ban lifted in Costa Rica: a success for reproductive rights?by Lynn M. MorganPLOS BlogsMarch 30th, 2016After years of political gridlock in the only western hemisphere country to ban IVF, Costa Ricans will finally have access to assisted reproduction.
Center for Genetics and Society Letter in Opposition to California AB 2531March 30th, 2016The Center for Genetics and Society urges the California Assembly Committee on Health to oppose a proposed bill that would expand payments to women to provide their eggs for research.
A Life of the Law Conversation on Eugenics[With CGS's Marcy Darnovsky and Osagie K. Obasogie]
March 29th, 2016Beginning in 1907, over 60,000 Americans were forcibly sterilized. These were people considered by scientists to be “unfit” — the mentally ill, the disabled, the morally suspect. How could this happen? How could the law deny tens of thousands of men and women the right to have children?
A Call For Protecting The Health Of Women Who Donate Their Eggsby Judy Norsigian and Timothy R.B. JohnsonWBUR's Common HealthMarch 28th, 2016The growing market for eggs highlights the need for long-term study into the health effects of egg retrieval.
Ma Na Sapna – A Mother’s Dreamby Gabriele Werner-Felmayer & Carmel Shalev, Biopolitical Times guest contributorsMarch 23rd, 2016A 2013 film on transnational surrogacy in India brings a sensitive view of the surrogate mothers who are otherwise largely invisible, and allows them to speak for themselves.
Should Parents of Children With Severe Disabilities Be Allowed to Stop Their Growth?by Genevieve FieldThe New York Times MagazineMarch 22nd, 2016Caring for people with severe mental and physical limitations becomes harder as they get older. Some parents believe medically stunting them is the answer — but is it ethical?
Whose Body, Whose Property, What Choice?by Alison Irvine & Katayoun Chamany, Biopolitical Times guest contributorsMarch 21st, 2016A recent panel at The New School brought together speakers on health psychology, queer studies, law, life sciences, and more to discuss bodies purchased for labor and care in assisted reproduction.
When baby is due, genetic counselors seen downplaying false alarmsby Beth DaleyNew England Center for Investigative ReportingMarch 6th, 2016Even after the birth, when their baby looked fine, their genetic counselor insisted that the result of the test was not a mistake.
Frozen Eggs and Title IX[cites CGS’ Marcy Darnovsky]by Mary Ann MasonChronicle of Higher EducationFebruary 29th, 2016If you’re counting on that procedure to delay your family while you get your career going, think again.
Fertility, grief and big business are not a good combinationby Catherine BennettThe GuardianFebruary 27th, 2016The woman who wants to carry her dead daughter’s child sets in relief our confusion about rights and needs.
Cleveland Clinic Performs First Successful Uterus Transplant In The U.S.by Merrit KennedyNPRFebruary 26th, 2016This opens up another possible path to parenthood besides surrogacy or adoption for U.S. women who do not have a uterus, or who have a uterus that does not function.
The End of Cross-Border Surrogacy?by Donna DickensonProject SyndicateFebruary 25th, 2016India, Nepal, Thailand, and Mexico have introduced measures that would limit or ban foreigners from hiring locals as surrogate mothers. Cambodia and Malaysia look likely to follow suit.
Bridging Borders: Transnational Surrogacy, Queer Kinship & Reproductive Justiceby Elliot HosmanFebruary 25th, 2016A report on the Making Families conference at UC Berkeley connecting reproductive justice, queer kinship, and transnational surrogacy practices, stories, and research.
Cross-Border Reproduction: An "Ethic of Care" and an Unregulated Marketby Marcy DarnovskyFebruary 23rd, 2016What can a human rights-based ethic of care contribute to addressing the troubling aspects of intercountry assisted reproduction?
What’s the difference between genetic engineering and eugenics?by Robert GebelhoffThe Washington PostFebruary 22nd, 2016Where we draw the line between "negative eugenics" and "positive genetic intervention" is a political question.
Harvard’s Eugenics Eraby Adam S. CohenHarvard MagazineFebruary 19th, 2016Given that Harvard affiliates will play a large role in genetic engineering, it is important to contemplate how wrong so many people tied to the University got it the first time—and to think hard about how, this time, to get it right.
When Parents and Surrogates Disagree on Abortionby Katie O'ReillyThe AtlanticFebruary 18th, 2016An ongoing legal battle between a gestational carrier of triplets and a father-to-be shows the messiness of surrogacy contracts.
For Fertility Treatment, Wounded Veterans Have To Pay The Billby Quil LawrenceNPRFebruary 17th, 2016A law passed in 1992 made it illegal for the VA to pay for IVF, which some people oppose because embryos are often destroyed. But thousands of vets have injuries that make IVF their only option for having a family.
The History of Eugenics in Quebec and at McGill by Hailey MacKinnonThe McGill TribuneFebruary 16th, 2016McGill University is known for its cutting-edge scientific research. Many may not know, however, that McGill was a communication hub between eugenicists in Britain and Canada.
Egg Donation and Surrogacy Scam [Press Release]U.S. Federal Bureau of InvestigationFebruary 16th, 2016A California fertility broker defrauded would-be parents, egg donors, and surrogate mothers while living a lavish lifestyle off the proceeds, says the FBI.
A look into the bioethics of commercialized surrogacy by Clare FogartyThe McGill TribuneFebruary 16th, 2016Discussions centered on the Canadian law that criminalizes the payment of surrogate mothers.
Gene editing: The next frontier in America’s abortion wars[cites CGS' Marcy Darnovsky]by Sarah KarlinPoliticoFebruary 16th, 2016"Fears about eugenics and a brave new world are concerns that are shared by people across the political spectrum."
Is a Surrogate a Mother?[cites CGS' Marcy Darnovsky]by Michelle GoldbergSlateFebruary 15th, 2016A battle over triplets raises difficult questions about the extent to which contracts can deal with pregnancy, childbirth, and transferring parental rights in a commercial setting.
We Are This Close to "Designer Babies"[cites CGS' Marcy Darnovsky]by Nina Liss-SchultzMother JonesFebruary 8th, 2016Issues to consider in light of the UK's approval of using CRISPR gene editing on human embryos for research.
We need to talk about egg freezingby Eva WisemanThe GuardianFebruary 7th, 2016It’s expensive, frustrating and can be traumatic. As more and more women make the choice to freeze their eggs, do they know exactly what they’re getting into?
Is It Time To Stop Using Race In Medical Research?by Angus ChenNPRFebruary 5th, 2016Medical researchers often use race to define health risks. But racial categories don't accurately reflect who people are, and that science has to change.
Pentagon to Offer Plan to Store Eggs and Sperm to Retain Young Troopsby Michael S. SchmidtThe New York TimesFebruary 3rd, 2016A pilot program will pay for troops to have their gametes frozen, in an effort to make military service more appealing and family friendly.
Three-parent DNA treatment for rare defect raises debate on PBS Newshour
[Video]
[With CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]February 3rd, 2016Go ahead given to technology that would replace original mitochondria in either the mother’s egg or in the parents’ embryo with healthy mitochondria from a third person. A child born this way would then be carrying the DNA of three different people.
Center for Genetics and Society Comments on Just-Released Report on Germline Mitochondrial Manipulations[Press statement]February 3rd, 2016The National Academy of Medicine's report conclusion – that no ethical or policy considerations stand in the way of clinical investigations going forward – seems at odds with the many cautions, risks, and concerns that it raises.
Debating UK approval of gene editing in human embryos
[MP3]
[With CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by Larry MantleAirTalk, KPCCFebruary 1st, 2016The decision by Britain's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority marks the first time a country's national regulator has approved the technique.
A Conversation With No Más Bebés Filmmakers Virginia Espino and Renee Tajima-Peñaby Tina VasquezRH Reality CheckFebruary 1st, 2016Get a glimpse into the making of No Más Bebés, the documentary that looks into the sterilization of Mexican women during the late 1960s and early 1970s in Los Angeles County.
We Need More Proof That Prenatal Gene Screens Are Beneficialby The EditorsScientific AmericanFebruary 1st, 2016Results from screening tests can be misleading. Industry and federal regulators are not doing enough to ensure that people get all the information they need.
The United States Once Sterilized Tens of Thousands — Here’s How the Supreme Court Allowed Itby Trevor BurrusMediumJanuary 27th, 2016A lucid and accurate discussion of Buck v. Bell, what led up to it, and its consequences both personal and political.
Italy Considers Civil Unions — But May Add Penalties for Surrogacyby Trudy RingThe AdvocateJanuary 22nd, 2016As Italy’s Parliament prepares to debate a civil unions bill, some lawmakers have proposed an amendment punishing couples who use overseas surrogates to become parents.
‘No Más Bebés’: Documentary Highlights History of Forced Sterilizations in L.A.by Sonali KolkhatkarTruthDigJanuary 21st, 2016The film covers a grisly era of California history—the forced sterilization of untold numbers of poor, mostly Latino, Spanish-speaking women in the 1960s and 70s.
Down's Syndrome people risk 'extinction' at the hands of science, fear and ignoranceby Tim StanleyThe TelegraphJanuary 18th, 2016The true moral test of a society is not how pretty, sober or well organised it is – but how it treats its most vulnerable, even its most difficult, citizens.
The Secret Lives of Egg Donors: The Strange Hell Women Go Through to Donate Their Eggsby Colette ShadeVICE BroadlyJanuary 17th, 2016We Are Egg Donors serves as an online repository of stories about the strange hell women put themselves through to receive that lump sum.
Jordan Middle School, other schools now up for renamingby Elena KadvanyPalo Alto WeeklyJanuary 13th, 2016Middle school students and their parents are objecting to their school being named for Stanford University founding president David Starr Jordan, because of his involvement in the eugenics movement.
I fathered 800 children, claims sperm donorby Natalie Morton & Sarah BellBBC NewsJanuary 11th, 2016An unlicensed UK sperm donor has been connecting with intended parents online for 16 years, donating once a week and charging $50 a pop.
California’s Proposed Budget Upholds ‘Racist, Sexist, Classist’ Policyby Tina VasquezRH Reality CheckJanuary 11th, 2016The Maximum Family Grant is designed to discourage low-income mothers from having children.
Why Is Sperm So Damn Expensive?by Brittany MaloolyVICE BroadlyJanuary 10th, 2016On the sperm market, the amount of labor that's involved in obtaining so-called premium gametes drives sperm prices sky high.
The First Artificial Insemination Was an Ethical Nightmare by Elizabeth YukoThe AtlanticJanuary 8th, 2016The 19th-century procedure involved lies, a secrecy pledge, and sperm from a surprise donor.
Women can ‘grow’ their own IVF embryos with in-body incubatorby Andy CoghlanNew ScientistJanuary 6th, 2016In a US clinical trial, embryos in an incubation device were placed into women's bodies for five days before removal to select the "fittest" embryo to implant for pregnancy.
Surrogate Sues Father Over Tripletsby Brandy ZadroznyThe Daily BeastJanuary 6th, 2016In response to an intended parent's request to abort one of three fetuses, a pregnant plaintiff says she will carry them all to term and is suing to keep at least one of the babies.
When California Sterilized 20,000 of Its Citizensby Alexandra Minna SternZocalo Public SquareJanuary 6th, 2016The Golden State was the most aggressive in the country in deeming the "feebleminded" and "deviant" unfit to reproduce.
The billion dollar babiesby Vandy Muong & Will JacksonThe Phnom Penh Post [Cambodia]January 2nd, 2016Now banned in India, Nepal and Thailand, the surrogacy industry is moving into Cambodia, but potential parents are being warned to stay away.
The Chances Of Success For IVF Improve The More Times You Do It, Study Finds, But It Also Highlights The Gap In Accessibilityby Erin McKelle FischerBustleDecember 30th, 2015Multiple rounds of IVF require tens of thousands of dollars and months to years of treatment; success is often only for the privileged.
Screening sperm donors for autism? As an autistic person, I know that’s the road to eugenics[cites CGS]by Ari Ne'emanThe GuardianDecember 30th, 2015The London Sperm Bank and other clinics are using technology and making decisions to remove certain people from future generations.
Crackdown on Surrogacy 'to Continue' Even as Ban Idea Droppedby Liu Jiaying (trans. Li Rongde)Caixin Online [China]December 29th, 2015Lawmakers in China believe further consultation on the complex issue is needed, but surrogacy is still effectively banned.
Shifting Surrogacy Laws Give Birth to Uncertainty by Brad BertrandNikkei Asian Review [Singapore]December 26th, 2015Since the government clampdowns in Thailand, India and Nepal, the focus in Asia has shifted to Malaysia and Cambodia, which lack comprehensive legal frameworks to regulate surrogacy.
Biopolitical News of 2015by Elliot Hosman, Pete Shanks & Marcy Darnovsky, Biopolitical TimesDecember 22nd, 2015We highlight 2015’s breaking news stories about human biotech developments.
Clinical Genetics Has a Big Problem That's Affecting People's Livesby Ed YongThe AtlanticDecember 17th, 2015Many geneticists have tales where mistakes in the scientific literature have led to wrong — and sometimes harmful — diagnoses.
Ontario funds one cycle of IVF — while supplies lastby Alison MotlukCanadian Medical Association JournalDecember 16th, 2015Not all Ontarians who are eligible for a funded cycle of in vitro fertilization will necessarily get it, and it's not clear just how the 5000 annual spots will be allocated to individual patients.
Mexican State Votes to Ban Surrogacy for Gay Men and Foreign People by Associated Press in Mexico CityThe Guardian [UK]December 15th, 2015Tabasco was the only Mexican state to allow surrogacy, supposedly on a non-commercial basis.
Health Canada all but ignores illegal ad for surrogate, cash for egg donors, internal documents revealby Tom BlackwellNational Post [Canada]December 13th, 2015Evidence shows that Health Canada has not just turned a blind eye, but has been complicit with illegal activity.
Livetweeting #GeneEditSummit: Democratized Debate or Segregated Conversations?by Elliot Hosman, Biopolitical TimesDecember 10th, 2015Though #GeneEditSummit was trending on Twitter, inclusive public debate must be more robust than the livetweeting of insular stakeholder meetings.
About Us, Without Us: Inclusion in the Threat of Eradicationby Teresa Blankmeyer BurkeImpact EthicsDecember 8th, 2015Disability rights advocates are still excluded from conversations (such as the International Summit on Human Gene Editing) that involve the survival of our communities.
What's in a name? Variations in terminology of third-party reproductionDecember 3rd, 2015Introducing some of the issues previously raised by scholars concerned with analysis of discourse related to third-party reproduction.
More Women Are Freezing Their Eggs, But Will They Ever Use Themby Eliza BarclayNPRNovember 25th, 2015It will be years before there's enough data showing whether egg freezing actually helps most of the women doing it fulfill their dreams of motherhood.
Putting a Price on Human Eggs Makes No Senseby Debora SparFortuneNovember 21st, 2015No one wants to deal with the ugly reality that egg donation is not donation at all, but a high price paid for a piece of one’s body.
California Judge Orders Frozen Embryos Destroyed[cites CGS Fellow Lisa Ikemoto]by Andy NewmanThe New York TimesNovember 19th, 2015A superior court judge in San Francisco ordered the thawing and destruction of a divorced couple's frozen embryos, enforcing the terms of the couple's pre-divorce agreement.
CRISPR Gene Editing: Proofreaders and Undo Buttons, but Ever "Safe" Enough?by Elliot Hosman, Biopolitical TimesNovember 19th, 2015Recent trends include research reports of "spellcheck" and "undo" functions associated with CRISPR gene editing, and a shift toward greater caution about germline applications.
Better Babiesby Nathaniel ComfortAeonNovember 17th, 2015The long and peculiar history of the designer human, from Plato’s citizen breeders to Nobel sperm banks, and the latest iteration of human genetic perfectability: CRISPR gene editing.
[China] Couples in China making babies through assisted reproductionChina DailyNovember 14th, 2015Half of the 90 million Chinese women now allowed to have a second child are between the ages of 40 and 49, and many couples are turning to assisted reproduction clinics.
[Cambodia] Gov’t to Crack Down on Surrogacy Clinicsby Chea Takihiro & Jonathan CoxKhmer TimesNovember 11th, 2015Surrogacy companies are moving their “wombs for rent” services from Thailand to Cambodia, but government officials plan to classify surrogacy as a form of human trafficking.
Eggs unlimitedby Jennifer Couzin-FrankelScienceNovember 6th, 2015OvaScience's fertility procedure appalls some reproductive biologists, and is currently not permitted in the US. But the company is marketing its treatment in Canada and some analysts are upbeat.
How Much Should a Woman Be Paid for Her Eggs?by Jacoba UristThe AtlanticNovember 4th, 2015Is the money a woman receives for her eggs payment for her services, her discomfort, or her biological property?
'Modern twist' on fertility technique may offer hope for sterile menby Denis CampbellThe GuardianNovember 2nd, 2015Fourteen children have been born in a trial in Japan using immature sperm cells, injected into electrically stimulated eggs – a method banned in the UK since the 1990s.
'Somebody has to be the icebreaker': Aussies seeking babies turn to Cambodiaby Lindsay MurdochSydney Morning HeraldOctober 30th, 2015A booming surrogacy industry chased out of Thailand and Nepal has established itself in Cambodia, where human trafficking laws and a lack of surrogacy regulation could produce fraught legal battles.
Egg Donors Challenge Pay Ratesby Tamar LewinThe New York TimesOctober 16th, 2015A judge has certified a federal class action lawsuit by women who argue that ART industry guidelines that limit compensation for eggs to $10,000 constitute "illegal price-fixing."
[India] Blanket ban likely on NRIs, PIOs, foreigners having kids through surrogacyThe Economic TimesOctober 15th, 2015A draft bill limits intended parents to Indian residents, allows single and divorced women to contract as surrogates, and addresses healthcare for women during surrogacy.
Surrogacy as an Iceberg: 90 Percent Below Waterby Emma ManiereBiopolitical TimesOctober 14th, 2015While agencies market surrogacy as a fulfilling “journey,” they also caution prospective consumers about ethical and financial pitfalls. These contradictory messages reflect the true complexity of commercial surrogacy.
[Nepal] Gendercideby Geha Nath KhanalKathmandu PostOctober 13th, 2015Sex-selective abortion has increased in Nepal. From 2007-10, 742 girls were born for every 1,000 boys.
Feminists, get ready: pregnancy and abortion are about to be disruptedby Eleanor RobertsonThe GuardianOctober 12th, 2015A clinical trial of uterine transplants will begin soon in the UK. Are artificial wombs on the horizon?
Next-Generation Prenatal Genetic Tests Are Turning Fate Into Choiceby Michael WhitePacific StandardOctober 9th, 2015The new tests mean that many more women are grappling with the decision of whether to continue or end a pregnancy based on genetic information.
30k-60K US Sperm and Egg Donor Births Per Year?by Wendy KramerHuffington PostOctober 6th, 2015For 28 years the estimated number of children born via donor insemination has remained 30,000. But there is no reliable information in the public domain.
Women Find a Fertility Test Isn't as Reliable as They'd Likeby Eliza BarclayNPROctober 5th, 2015Ovarian reserve tests are often ambiguous and can be misinterpreted; some fertility specialists worry that many women will be misled by their results.
Ontario to Cover In-Vitro Fertilization Treatments[Canada]by Rob FergusonThe StarOctober 1st, 2015Ontario has become the second Canadian province to cover some of the costs of IVF.
Informed Consent for Egg Donors Won’t Exist Unless We Track Donors’ Healthby Judy E. SternOur Bodies, Our BlogOctober 1st, 2015Recent academic articles raise concerns that conflicts of interest may result in egg providers having an incomplete understanding of the risks of eggs retrieval procedures.
Womb transplants given UK go-aheadBBCSeptember 30th, 2015Ten women will be chosen for a clinical trial that will transplant a donated uterus, monitor organ acceptance for a year, and initiate up to two IVF pregnancies before removing the transplant.
Why Some Parents Choose to Have a Deaf Babyby Rich WordsworthMotherboardSeptember 29th, 2015Some deaf parents ask, "What’s wrong with being deaf, anyway? I’m happy to be who I am."
The Messy, Complicated Nature of Assisted Reproductive Technology[cites CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by J. Wesley JuddPacific StandardSeptember 28th, 2015A California court ART case shows that even when there is a contract, the issues are far from black and white.
Why the Majority of Sperm Donations in Canada Are from the U.S.[Canada]by Jim BrownCanadian Broadcasting CorporationSeptember 27th, 2015Only 5-10% of donated sperm in Canada is from domestic donors; the majority comes from US providers who, unlike their counterparts north of the border, are paid.
Couples Left in Limbo as They Await Ontario IVF Funding Decision [Canada]by Elizabeth ChurchThe Globe and MailSeptember 25th, 2015In 2014, the Ontario government pledged to fund one IVF cycle, but 18 months later, couples struggling with infertility are still waiting.
Ohio Abortion Bill Stokes Old Tensions between Disability and Abortion Rights Advocatesby Emma ManiereBiopolitical TimesSeptember 24th, 2015A round-up of recent articles and commentaries about Ohio’s HB 135, which would ban abortions sought due to fetal diagnoses of Down syndrome.
Down Syndrome Blood Test Sparks Abortion Debateby Amy Dockser MarcusWall Street JournalSeptember 21st, 2015Advocates worry that more accurate prenatal tests will lead more people to end pregnancies without understanding how life with Down syndrome has dramatically changed.
We Shouldn’t be Allowed to Choose our Children’s Sex[Australia]by Tamara Kayali BrowneThe Ethics CentreSeptember 16th, 2015Sex selection is a product of, and perpetuates, false assumptions about gender that keep men and women “in their places.”
Bioethics in the Grocery-Store Checkout Lineby Ruth GrahamThe AtlanticSeptember 15th, 2015If you don’t follow celebrity gossip, you might have missed just how often stories about reproductive technology are gracing the covers of tabloid magazines.
As Ontario Set to Roll Out IVF program, Panel Urges Those Older than 42, Severely Obese be Excluded[Canada]by Tom BlackwellNational PostSeptember 14th, 2015The recommendations are aimed at avoiding the cost overruns that doomed a similar plan for government funding of IVF in Quebec.
Fertility Industry Errors Created Doubt over Parental Status of Sperm Donor Couples by Ruth McKeeThe Guardian [UK]September 12th, 2015A judge says the UK fertility agency's failures are "alarming and shocking," and reveal "widespread incompetence across the sector."
Sex-Selective Abortions Lead Indian Men far Afield for Bridesby Associated PressNew York PostSeptember 10th, 2015A stark shortage of young women in India leads to brides being brought from afar, despite linguistic and cultural differences.
Disability and the Politics of Abortion by Judith LevineSeven Days [Vermont]September 9th, 2015We must not use technology to cull fetuses that might have differently abled bodies. We cannot allow abortion law to rescue them at the cost of their mothers' freedom.
To Freeze or Not to Freeze? [Australia]ABC AustraliaSeptember 6th, 2015Women in their 20s, 30s and 40s are choosing to freeze their eggs while they wait for the perfect partner or navigate the ideal career path.
Does Down Syndrome Justify Abortion?by Mark Lawrence SchradNew York TimesSeptember 4th, 2015In a typical pregnancy, women who choose to have an abortion are often saddled with shame and social stigma. Meanwhile, there remains significant stigma associated with being the parent of a child with special needs.
Seoul Sets Advisory Limit on IVF Embryo Transfer[South Korea]by Claire LeeThe Korea HeraldSeptember 2nd, 2015South Korea’s Health Ministry is revising its guidelines for IVF, discouraging medical professionals from transferring more than three embryos in a single procedure.
Coerced Sterilization of Canadian Indigenous Women in 70s Widespread: Researcherby Chris ArsenaultReutersSeptember 1st, 2015The Canadian government was often aware of the problem, but did not act to stop it.
IVF Availability Linked to Motherhood Delayby Arit UdohBioNewsSeptember 1st, 2015An Israeli study finds that policies that increase access to affordable IVF serve as "fertility insurance" and encourage women to delay motherhood.
Australian Families in Limbo as Nepal Joins India and Thailand in Banning Commercial Surrogacy [Australia]by Lauren WilsonNews.com.auSeptember 1st, 2015The Supreme Court of Nepal issued an interim order putting an immediate stop to commercial surrogacy services.
Freezing Eggs May Reduce A Woman's Odds Of Success With IVFby Robin Marantz HenigNPRAugust 28th, 2015With egg freezing being touted as a way for women to potentially expand future childbearing options, the viability of those eggs when they're defrosted is still relatively unknown.
Political Notes: CA bill protecting same-sex parents advancesby Matthew S. BajkoBay Area ReporterAugust 27th, 2015Gay, lesbian and unmarried couples who use assisted reproduction and third party gametes would be recognized as parents from the moment their child is born.
Nepal Bans Surrogate Births — Worry for Gay Israelisby JTAThe ForwardAugust 27th, 2015Many gay Israelis now travel to Nepal for surrogacy because Israel bans surrogate pregnancies for same-sex couples.
Banning Abortion for Down Syndrome: Legal or Ethical Justification? by Bonnie SteinbockHastings Center Bioethics ForumAugust 26th, 2015Instead of passing an unenforceable and unconstitutional law, Ohio should devote its time to ensuring that all people with disabilities, Down syndrome or otherwise, get the resources and services they need.
[Video] Is It Worth Your Time and Money to Freeze Your Eggs?[Interview with CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by StaffBroadly [VICE]August 24th, 2015This report investigates the commercial promises of Egg Banxx "freezing parties" while following a patient through the process of egg retrieval.
We're Tantalizingly Close to a New Era in Childbirthby Ellie KincaidTech InsiderAugust 24th, 2015Doctors and scientists are working on a number of experimental technologies to try to make getting pregnant easier for older women.
Choosing Children’s Sex Is an Exercise in Sexism[Australia]by Tereza HendlThe ConversationAugust 23rd, 2015Australian guidelines for ethical use of IVF allow sex selection for medical reasons. But draft guidelines now open for public submissions may allow the choice for social reasons.
Ohio Bill Would Ban Abortion if Down Syndrome Is Reasonby Tamar LewinThe New York TimesAugust 22nd, 2015The legislature is expected to approve the measure. Gov. John Kasich, a Republican who is running for president, opposes abortion but has not yet taken a position on this bill.
IVF Mix-Up Case Now Before Court of Appealby Selina LumThe Straits Times [Singapore]August 20th, 2015A woman whose was conceived with a stranger's sperm rather than her husband's is appealing to be awarded upkeep costs.
Fertility Clinics Let You Select Your Baby’s Sexby Sumathi ReddyThe Wall Street Journal“Family balancing” can become a smoke screen for families who want boys. Nonmedical sex selection is legal in only a few countries, including the US; medical organizations are split on the issue.
Fertility Clinics Destroy Embryos All the Time. Why Aren’t Conservatives After Them?by Margo KaplanThe Washington PostRepublicans’ efforts to cut off federal funding for Planned Parenthood will hurt vulnerable women most.
Experts Call for Greater Scrutiny of Egg Donation Practicesby Patrice WendlingClinical Endocrinology News Digital Network August 14th, 2015Some clinics and agencies may be minimizing risks in recruitment ads and websites, incentivizing repeated donations, or overstimulating donors for the benefit of recipients and clinic success rates.
Právo: No One Wants Czech Child Born to Surrogate Mother by CTKPrague Daily MonitorAugust 13th, 2015The Czech infant, now a year old, was diagnosed with congenital epilepsy and paralysis. Both the intended parents and surrogate mother renounced parental rights, leaving him in institutional care.
"Eggsploitation: Maggie's Story" Reveals Unknown Risks of Egg Retrieval by Emma ManiereBiopolitical TimesAugust 13th, 2015"Eggsploitation: Maggie's Story" reveals how the fertility industry takes advantage of individuals' altruistic motives in search of profit while the medical risks remain unknown.
The Stats Behind Egg Freezing And IVF Are Not Goodby Joshua A. KrischVocativAugust 11th, 2015Egg freezing's failure rate should serve as another wakeup call for women who are considering pushing off pregnancy because of misplaced trust in IVF.
Ageing and Fertility: Biology Comes Secondby Kirsty OswaldBioNewsAugust 10th, 2015As long as we live in a society that expects women to sacrifice so much more than men to be a parent, we might as well stop talking about biology.
IVF: Do Children Have the Right to Know if They're the Result of a Stranger’s Sperm or Egg Donation?by Linda GeddesThe IndependentAugust 10th, 2015A 2003 survey by the Centre for Family Research at the University of Cambridge found that 47% of parents of kids conceived after egg donation had no intention of telling.
Thailand Bans Commercial Surrogacy for Foreigners, Singles[Thailand]by Penny Yi WangABC NewsAugust 7th, 2015After recent scandals involving foreign intending parents, Thailand has banned commercial surrogacy serving foreign clients.
Are Milder IVF Methods the Way Forward? [UK]by Ruth WoodThe TelegraphAugust 3rd, 2015Some NHS groups have recently approved a provider of gentler, safer methods of fertility treatment. But is this as successful as conventional IVF?
Price and Prejudice: How Ads for Egg Donation are Starting to Sound like Matrimonials[India]by Ipsita ChakravartyScroll.inAugust 2nd, 2015Should people be allowed to cherry-pick egg donors in a bid to produce babies with specific traits?
Stars, Bars, and Embryosby Emma ManiereBiopolitical TimesJuly 28th, 2015Controversies about the confederate flag and prenatal genetic testing are far more complex than "choice" and "intent" suggest.
Sperm Donor Fathers Reveal Struggle of Not Knowing Who Their Kids Areby Lauren McMahPerth Now [Australia]July 26th, 2015“A lot of the commentary and discussion focuses on the donor-conceived people but I think it’s equally important to look at the impact on donors."
Outsourcing Motherhood: India's Reproductive Dystopiaby Namita KohliHindustan TimesJuly 26th, 2015Stories of DNA mismatches, abandoned babies, and unscrupulous practices at IVF clinics suggest that commercial surrogacy in the country is almost in a state of lawlessness.
Putting a Price on a Human Egg by Ashby JonesThe Wall Street JournalJuly 26th, 2015A lawsuit claims that price guidelines used by fertility clinics artificially suppress the amount women can get for their eggs.
The House of Hidden Mothers by Meera Syalby Aisha FarooqDESIblitz.com [UK]July 22nd, 2015A new novel explores issues of infertility and surrogacy that affect South Asian and British Asian society today.
POV: It’s Time to Regulate the Fertility Industryby George AnnasBoston University TodayJuly 16th, 2015Patients' intense desire to have children can leave them at the mercy of the market and unscrupulous practitioners. The fertility industry does not, and perhaps simply cannot, police itself.
First Federal Bill to Acknowledge US Eugenics Would Help Victims of State Sterilization Programsby Jonathan ChernoguzBiopolitical TimesJuly 8th, 2015If passed, it would be the first federal legislation to recognize the history of sterilization abuse that took place during the twentieth century in the name of eugenics.
Infertile Couples Hope New Technology Helps Select Most Successful Embryosby Michelle MunzSt. Louis Post-DispatchJuly 5th, 2015EmbryoScope is an incubator and camera in one. It promises to improve the selection of embryos most likely to result in pregnancy and birth.
Poverty Forces Workers' Wives to Become Surrogate Mothersby Neetu Chandra SharmaIndia TodayJuly 3rd, 201592 per cent of the surrogates in Delhi did not even have a copy of the contract and only 27 per cent of the clinics in Delhi and 11.4 per cent in Mumbai were party to the contract.
Surrogate Children Get Legal Recognition in Franceby Philippe SottoTimeJuly 3rd, 2015While surrogacy will remain banned in France, children born abroad through this practice will now be legally tied to their parents and will be granted birth certificates and French citizenship.
India's Draft Surrogacy Bill Proposes that Would-Be Parents Pay a Bondby Amrit DhillonSouth China Morning PostJuly 3rd, 2015The bill, if passed by parliament, will create a government agency to fix and monitor the standards of cleanliness, medical expertise and ethics of fertility clinics.
How the Law has Failed Children of Anonymous Sperm Donorsby Sarah DingleDaily Life [Australia]June 30th, 2015One of many donor-conceived people created under Australia's anonymous donation regime is fighting for the right to know her biological background.
Canadian Lawyers Urge Caution as Women Seek Unconventional Paths to ‘Autonomous Motherhood’by Douglas QuanMontreal GazetteJune 25th, 2015Despite British Columbia's legal recognition of same-sex parents who have children via sperm and egg donors, women seeking to become “single mothers by choice" face legal uncertainty.
Unregulated Surrogacy: Law Yet to Deliverby Vandana ShuklaThe Tribune [India]June 24th, 2015The Indian Council of Medical Research has to draft an appropriate, more equitable legislation that would look at the rights of the surrogate and her health vis-a-vis technology.
CRISPR: Move Beyond Differencesby Charis ThompsonNatureJune 24th, 2015Researchers and ethicists need to see past what can seem to be gendered debates when it comes to the governance of biotechnology.
Should You Freeze Your Eggs?by Debora SparMarie ClaireJune 22nd, 2015The entire business of egg freezing borders on a trap. What it's really selling is a hedge against regret: a way for women to avoid waking up one morning with the sudden realization that they've forgotten to have a baby.
French Families Sue State to Recognize Surrogate Birthsby Philippe SottoAssociated PressJune 19th, 2015The case could change how surrogate births are handled in France, where infertility treatments are highly regulated and where many consider it unethical to make money off human reproduction.
Unused Embryos Pose Difficult Issue: What to Do With Themby Tamar LewinThe New York TimesJune 17th, 2015In storage facilities across the nation, hundreds of thousands of frozen embryos — perhaps a million — are preserved in silver tanks of liquid nitrogen.
UK Seeks Regulatory Advice for “Mitochondrial Replacement,” Fails to Mention Cross-Generational Implicationsby Jessica CussinsBiopolitical TimesJune 17th, 2015How does one go about regulating the world’s first cross-generational biological experiment in human germline modification? The regulating body in charge isn’t exactly sure.
Down Syndrome Screening isn’t About Public Health. It’s About Eliminating a Group of People.by Renate LindemanWashington PostJune 16th, 2015Testing should be used to enhance health and human well-being instead of discriminating against people based on their genetic predisposition.
No Más Bebés: A Documentary on the Sterilizations of Latina Mothers at an LA County Hospital by Jonathan ChernoguzBiopolitical TimesJune 15th, 2015During the late 1960s and early 1970s, some women who went to Los Angeles County-USC Medical Center to deliver their babies went home without the ability to have children again.
Pre-Implantation Diagnosis to be Allowedby Jeannie WurzSwissInfo [Switzerland]June 14th, 2015About 62% of Swiss voters have said yes to genetic screening of embryos before implantation in a woman’s uterus.
Surrogate Parenting: A Worldwide Industry, Lacking Global Rulesby Ari ShapiroNPRJune 11th, 2015The bottom line: If you're an American in the market for a surrogate — and you have money to spend — you can do it.
IVF: A Numbers Game Made Worse by Rogue Clinicsby Loretta HoulahanThe Age [Australia]June 10th, 2015A big discrepancy in the success rates of clinics is kept secret from us.
The Bioethics of Genetic Diversityby Xavier SymonsBioEdgeJune 6th, 2015The ethical issues surrounding the protection of genetic variation in a population are examined.
Peruvian Women Haunted by Forced Sterilization Seek State Apologyby Anastasia MoloneyReutersJune 3rd, 2015Some 350,000 women and 25,000 men were sterilized as part of the mid-1990s program.
NHS Fertility Doctor Says Women 'Should Start Trying by 30' as Problems Can Take Years to Resolve by Louis DoréThe IndependentMay 31st, 2015"If a woman starts trying at 35, doctors have got to sort it out when she is already on a slippery fertility slope."
IVF isn't a Fix-All for Those Choosing to Delay Adulthoodby William LedgerThe Age [Australia]May 31st, 2015Today, just 12 per cent of IVF cycles in women over 40 result in the birth of a baby.
Human Factory Farming and the Campaign to Outlaw Surrogacyby Mirah RibenDissident VoiceMay 30th, 2015America is known as the most lax country for adoption and surrogacy. It has been called the Wild West for its lack of regulation of these practices. Is this a legacy we want to continue?
The Success Rates From IVF are Nowhere Near What People Thinkby Ellie KincaidBusiness Insider [Australia]May 29th, 2015Around 40% of IVF cycles result in babies for women aged 32 and younger. Not even 10 years later, for women aged 40, that success rate is cut in half to less than 20%.
The Feminist History of Surrogacy: Should Pregnancy Give a Woman Rights Over a Baby? by GlosswitchNew Statesman May 22nd, 2015Our current thinking, with its impulse towards gender neutrality and the insistence that female reproduction isn't inherently different from its male counterpart, is flawed.
Innovation and Equity in an Age of Gene Editingby Charis Thompson, Ruha Benjamin, Jessica Cussins and Marcy DarnovskyThe GuardianMay 19th, 2015As experts gather in Atlanta to discuss the rights and wrongs of editing human genomes, four of the attendees explain why it is vital to put social justice at the heart of the debate.
Unregistered Surrogate-Born Children Creating 'Legal Timebomb', Judge Warnsby Owen BowcottThe GuardianMay 18th, 2015Without a court-sanctioned parental order and improved international legal frameworks, children could end up “stateless and parentless.”
The Ethics of International Surrogacyby Anne SchiffThe Jerusalem PostMay 17th, 2015Sometimes it takes a tragedy to draw public attention to otherwise unconsidered problems. The recent earthquakes in Nepal, and their consequences for Israelis hiring surrogate mothers there, represent such an instance.
U.S. Couple Stuck in Mexico Due to Surrogacy Snafuby Rafael RomoCNNMay 8th, 2015An American couple who say they have been stuck in Mexico for weeks because officials there won't provide a birth certificate for their son believe a resolution could be close.
Stigma Around ‘Non-Traditional’ Families Won’t End With Assisted Reproductive Technologyby Bianca CampbellRH Reality CheckMay 5th, 2015"I wonder if this assisted reproductive technology will be truly accessible to me and my community, and if it reinforces a nuclear family ideal that further stigmatizes our choices."
CRISPR Germline Editing Reverberates Through Biotech Communityby BioentrepreneurNature News BlogApril 30th, 2015The group has called for a discussion of the potential merits and risks of the technology and a global moratorium on germline applications, until such time, if ever, responsible uses can be identified.
Israel Evacuates Surrogate Babies From Nepal but Leaves the Mothers Behindby Debra KaminTimeApril 28th, 2015The infants’ arrival completed the evacuation of 26 surrogate Israeli babies from Nepal, where a devastating earthquake killed more than 4,000.
Why Facebook’s Egg Donor Ads Freak Me Out (And Should Freak You Out Too)by Sayantani DasGupta, Biopolitical Times guest contributorApril 27th, 2015With the disturbing aspects of the ova donation industry in mind, the additional digital twist of the personalized Facebook ova ad is particularly disturbing.
“It’s a Baby Farm.”by Jessica CussinsBiopolitical TimesApril 23rd, 2015A new documentary uncovers the shocking realities of unregulated commercial surrogacy in India.
Seeking Your Input: Survey on Egg Retrievalby Gina Maranto, Biopolitical Times guest contributorApril 22nd, 2015We are surveying women’s knowledge and attitudes toward egg retrieval to yield critical insights into how best to frame health information intended to enable women to make informed choices.
The Rights of Donor-Conceived Offspringby Naomi Cahn, Biopolitical Times guest contributorApril 15th, 2015While their parents’ choices affect them as children, donor-conceived children grow up, and many become curious about their origins. The law’s tight focus on the parent-child relationship excludes legal questions relating to donor-conceived adults.
Calling for “More than a Moratorium” on Human Germline Modificationby Jessica CussinsBiopolitical TimesApril 9th, 2015A broader array of critical responses and policy suggestions follows recent reports that the gene-editing technique CRISPR has been used to genetically modify human sperm, eggs or embryos.
Genetic Engineering & The Future of Humankindby Jamie MetzlIvy MagazineApril 9th, 2015We’re on the verge of this fundamental transformation, not just of our reproductive processes, but of how we think of ourselves as humans.
Attorneys: Sterilizations were Part of Plea Deal Talksby  Sheila BurkeAssociated PressMarch 28th, 2015Nashville prosecutors have made sterilization of women part of plea negotiations at least four times in the past five years.
A Modern Woman's Burden[Quotes CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by Natalie LampertNew RepublicMarch 20th, 2015How much does egg-freezing technology help delay reproduction?
States aren't Eager to Regulate Fertility Industry[Quotes CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by Michael OlloveUSA TodayMarch 19th, 2015Compared to many other industrialized nations, neither the U.S. nor state governments do much to oversee the multibillion-dollar assisted reproduction industry.
“High IQ Eggs Wanted” – ads appeal to ego and altruism, offer $10,000by Lisa C. Ikemoto, Biopolitical Times guest contributorMarch 19th, 2015The ABCs of egg donation are SAT, IQ, and college ranking, not to mention youth, race, and good looks, but marketing motivates young women with a carefully calibrated ratio of altruism and financial need.
Industry Body Calls for Gene-Editing Moratoriumby Antonio RegaladoMIT Technology ReviewMarch 12th, 2015Gene-editing companies say research on altering the DNA of human reproductive cells is dangerous and unethical.
How Fear Fuels the Business of Egg Freezingby Danielle PaquetteThe Washington PostMarch 6th, 2015The procedure’s popularity and low odds of success have heightened tension between marketers and some doctors: What is responsible advertising — and what is fear mongering?
Pregnant Women Are Finding Out They Have Cancer From A Genetic Test Of Their Babiesby Virginia HughesBuzzFeedMarch 5th, 2015When it comes to prenatal tests, it’s not clear whether incidental findings have clear-cut diagnostic value. And false positives might spur a pregnant woman to go through unnecessary medical procedures.
Fertility Clinic Courts Controversy With Treatment That Recharges Eggsby Rob SteinNPRMarch 5th, 2015OvaScience hopes to eventually bring the technique to infertile couples in the United States. But the Food and Drug Administration has blocked that effort — pending proof that the technique works and is safe.
Virginia Votes Compensation for Victims of its Eugenic Sterilization Programby Jaydee Hanson, Biopolitical Times guest contributorMarch 5th, 2015Virginia’s eugenic sterilization law was revoked in 1979. It has taken 35 years for the state to decide to provide financial reparations for its victims, each of whom will receive $25,000.
With World Watching, UK Allows Experiments to Genetically Alter Babiesby Jessica CussinsBiopolitical TimesMarch 4th, 2015Despite several possibly insurmountable legal and safety hurdles, the House of Lords gave the final approval needed to move into fertility clinics the embryo modification techniques referred to as “mitochondrial donation.”
Surrogate Mothers in India Unaware of Risksby Frederik JoelvingReutersMarch 2nd, 2015Renting out their wombs may ease financial problems for poor women in India, but new research suggests surrogate mothers there are unaware of the risks and often left out of key medical decisions about their pregnancy.
Good Eggs, Bad Sperm and Terrible Journalismby Kirsty OswaldBioNewsMarch 2nd, 2015By repackaging the findings to appeal to the mainstream press, the true relevance of this research has been overlooked.
Virginia Lawmakers OK Payout to Forced Sterilization Survivorsby Gary RobertsonReutersFebruary 26th, 2015"I think it’s a recognition that when we do something wrong we need to fix it as a government."
Reproduction 3.0by Leah RamsayBerman Institute of Bioethics BulletinFebruary 26th, 2015Bioethics scholars discuss the science and ethics of the UK vote to allow mitochondrial manipulation procedures.
'Manufactured' Babies of Same-Sex Parents May Soon Be Reality[Quotes CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by Beth GreenfieldYahoo ParentingFebruary 26th, 2015Some say it will allow same-sex couples to “manufacture” biological babies using embryonic stem cells.
United Kingdom Becomes Only Country to Allow Human Germline Modification[Press statement]February 24th, 2015The Center for Genetics and Society (CGS) joins many others who believe that this is a historic mistake.
Put Your (Frozen) Eggs in the Bank: Welcome to the Bioeconomy[Quotes CGS Fellow Lisa Ikemoto]by Victoria TurkMotherboardFebruary 23rd, 2015Emerging reproductive technologies risk presenting our bodies from a new perspective: as a commodity to be banked, bought, and sold.
Thailand Bans Commercial Surrogacy for ForeignersBBCFebruary 20th, 2015Under the new law, only married Thai couples or couples with one Thai partner who have been married at least three years can seek surrogacy.
Blog: Three Parent IVFby Dr Trevor StammersSt Mary’s University BlogFebruary 16th, 2015At our current stage of understanding of the interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, this proposed new therapy could turn out to be a monstrous mistake.
Gay Couple Stuck in Mexican Legal Limbo After Birth of Surrogate Twinsby Verónica CalderónEl PaisFebruary 12th, 2015They cannot secure passports for their children, given that the state of Tabasco recognizes surrogate births, while the government department responsible for Mexican passport applications does not.
It's Illegal to Pay a Surrogate Mother in Canada. So What Would Motivate a Woman to do it? by Denise BalkissoonThe Globe and MailFebruary 12th, 2015They show a curious mix of altruism and omnipotence: These are women who give up their very bodies for complete strangers, but only after choosing a lucky few from the desperate hordes.
Egg-Freezing? Put Flex Time, Daycare Firstby Jacqueline NelsonThe Globe and MailFebruary 8th, 2015What exactly do we expect women to do to their bodies to become the ideal employee?
Buying Time: How Egg Freezing has Moved into the Mainstreamby Carly WeeksThe Globe and MailFebruary 8th, 2015There are questions about what exactly women are buying. Don’t expect to find the answers in the waiting-room pamphlets of fertility clinics.
Breaking Down The Science Of '3-Parent Babies'[With CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by Alyona MinkovskiHuffPost LiveFebruary 4th, 2015The U.K. has approved creating babies with the DNA of three different people. We break down the pros, cons and controversy.
Displaying 1-300 of 1177  
Next >> 
Last Page » 
« Show Complete List » 


ESPAÑOL | PORTUGUÊS | Русский

home | overview | blog | publications| about us | donate | newsletter | press room | privacy policy

CGS • 1122 University Ave, Suite 100, Berkeley, CA 94702 • • (p) 1.510.665.7760 • (F) 1.510.665.8760